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Friday, September 27, 2019

Osun State Poly Part-time 2020 session

Osun State Polytechnic part-time for 2020 session form is out. Suitable qualified candidates are advised to go and obtain the admission form into the polytechnic, Iree daily part-time (also known as DPT) program for the 2019/2020 academic session.

TWO YEAR DAILY PART TIME NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE DIRECTORATE OF PART-TIME

(i) Science Laboratory Technology
(ii) Food Technology
(iii) Statistics
(iv) Computer Science
(v) Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology
(vi) Computer Engineering Technology
(vii) Civil Engineering Technology
(viii) Mechanical Engineering Technology
(ix) Building Technology
(x) Quantity Surveying
(xi) Architectural Technology
(xii) Estate Management
(xiii) Urban and Regional Planning
(xiv) Arts and Design
(xv) Mass Communication
(xvi) Office Technology and Management
(xvii) Business Administration and Management Studies
(xviii) Banking and Finance
(xix) Accountancy.

(A) NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY.

i. Two-Year National Diploma in Computer Science
ii. Two -Year National Diploma in Mass Communication
iii. Two-Year National Diploma in Office Technology and Management (formerly Secretarial Studies)

Entry Requirements for (i) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from English Language, Mathematics, Physics and any other two subjects from the following: Chemistry, Agricultural Science/Biology, Economics/Commerce, ICT/Data/Computer Studies and Geography.

Entry Requirements for (ii) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in English Language, Mathematics and any other three subjects from the following: History, English Literature, Yoruba Language (any other Nigeria Language), Government/Civic Education/History, Economics/Commerce/Marketing, Geography, Principles of Accounts/Book Keeping, Typewriting, Shorthand, CRK/IRK, French Language, Business Methods, Physics/Chemistry and Biology/Agricultural Science, ICT.

Entry Requirements for (iii) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in English Language Mathematics and any other three subjects from the following: Economics/Commerce/Marketing, ICT/ Data Processing/Computer Studies, Office Practice, Typewriting, Shorthand, CRK/IRK, Yoruba Language, any other Nigeria Language, English Literature, French Language, History/Government, Principles of Accounts/Book-Keeping, Business Methods, Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science/Animal Husbandry.

B. NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE

i. Two -Year National Diploma in Food Technology
ii. Two -Year National Diploma in Statistics
iii. Two -Year National Diploma in Science Laboratory Technology

Entry Requirements for (i) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’level GCE, SSCE of WAEC ,SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in Mathematics, English Language, Chemistry and any other two subjects from the following:, Biology/Agricultural Science/Animal Husbandry, Food and Nutrition, Physics, ICT, Economics/Commerce, Further Mathematics, Statistics, Geography, Technical Drawing.

Entry Requirements for (ii) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in Mathematics, English Language, one basic science subject (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) and any other two from the following: Further Mathematics, ICT, Economics, Geography, Government/Civic Education/History and Commerce.

Entry Requirements for (iii) above)
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC ,SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in Mathematics, English Language, two basic science subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) and any other one from the following: Geography, ICT, Economics/Commerce, Biology/Agricultural Science, Food and Nutrition, Physics, Chemistry and Further Mathematics.


C. NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTY OF FINANCIAL STUDIES,

i. Two -Year National Diploma in Accountancy
ii. Two -Year National Diploma In Banking and Finance

Entry Requirements for (i & ii) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in Mathematics, English Language and any other three subjects from the following: Economics, ICT, Data Processing/Computer Studies, Commerce, Geography, History/Government/Civic Education, Book Keeping/Principles of Accounts, Business Methods, Agricultural Science/Biology, Typewriting and Shorthand.


D. NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTYOFMANAGEMENT STUDIES

i. Two Year National Diploma in Business Studies

Entry Requirements for (i) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC ,SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings in English Language, Mathematics, Economics and any other two subjects from the following: Business methods, Book Keeping/Principles of Accounts, Geography, ICT, Commerce, Government/History, Literature in English, Biology/Agricultural Science/Chemistry/Physics, Typewriting and Shorthand.

E. NATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

i. Two -Year National Diploma in Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology
ii. Two -Year National Diploma in Civil Engineering Technology
iii. Two -Year National Diploma in Computer Engineering Technology
iv. Two -Year National Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Technology

Entry Requirements for (i-iv) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC ,SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from Mathematics, English Language, Physics, Chemistry and any other one subject from the following: Biology/Agricultural Science, Further Mathematics, ICT/Computer studies/Data Processing, Geography, Economics/Commerce, Electronics, Technical/Building Drawing, Basic Electricity, Wood/ Metal Work, English Language and any other trade related subjects such as Introduction to Building Construction, Blocklaying/Bricklaying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork, General Woodwork, Cable Joining, Civic Education/Government, Welding and Auto Macherdizing.


F. ZONATIONAL DIPLOMA PROGRAMMES IN THE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

i. Two -Year National Diploma in Building Technology
ii. Two -Year National Diploma in Quantity Surveying
iii Two -Year National Diploma in Architectural Technology
iv Two -Year National Diploma in Estate Management
v Two -Year National Diploma in Urban and Regional Planning
vi Two -Year National Diploma in Arts and Design

Entry Requirements for (i-ii) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from Mathematics, English Language, Physics and any other two subjects from the following: Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science, Further Mathematics, Fine Art, Technical/Building Drawing, ICT, Geography, Economics, Commerce, Bricklaying/ Blocklaying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork and General Woodwork.
Entry Requirements for (iii) above

Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from Mathematics, English Language, Physics, Chemistry and any other one subject from the following: Biology/Agricultural Science, Further Mathematics, ICT, Fine Art, Technical/Building Drawing, Geography, Economics, Commerce, Bricklaying/Block laying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork, General Metal Work and any other trade related subjects such as Introduction to Building Construction, Bricklaying/Block laying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork and General Metal work .

Entry Requirements for (iv) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC ,SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from Mathematics, English language, a basic science (Physics/ Chemistry/Biology) and any other two subjects from the following: Principles of Account, Economics/Commerce, Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science, Further mathematics, ICT, Fine Arts/Technical/Building Drawing, Geography, General Metal/Woodwork and other trade related subjects such as Introduction to Building Construction, Bricklaying/ Blocklaying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork and General Woodwork.

Entry Requirements for (v) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from Mathematics, English Language, Geography/Economics, Fine Arts/Technical Drawing and any other one subject from the following: Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science, Further Mathematics, ICT, Fine Arts, Technical/Building Drawing, Geography, Economics, Commerce, Statistics, Woodwork, General Metal Work, and any other trade related subjects such as Introduction to Building Construction, Bricklaying/ Blocklaying, Concreting, Carpentry and Joinery, Machine Woodwork and General Woodwork.

Entry Requirements for (vi) above
Minimum of 5 Credits in O’Level GCE, SSCE of WAEC, SSCE of NECO or NTC of NABTEB obtained at not more than two sittings from English Language, Mathematic and any other three subjects from CRS/IRS, Chemistry, Physics, Biology/Agricultural Science, Fine Arts/Visual Arts/Technical Drawing, Geography, Literature in English, Yoruba, Economics/Commerce, Civic Education/ History/Government, Animal Husbandry, Fishery, Clothing and Textiles, Dyeing and Bleaching, General Metal Work, General Woodwork, Home Economics, Painting and Decoration, Craft Practice, Data Processing/Computer Studies/ICT and Photography.

Method of Application

1. Log on to https://ospoly.edves.net
2. Click Admission Forms link
3. Fill in your basic bio data and click Register
4. Pay application fee of N10,500 only using Debit Card of any bank.
5. Fill in other details as requested, submit and print application form

Closing Date
Sales of admission form closes 30th November, 2019.
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The Organization of African Unity (OAU)

For the first time in African history 32 independent African states met at Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, from May 22nd to 25th, 1963. The meeting brought together 30 heads of states and Heads of Government, the two absentees being King Hassan II of Morocco and President Grunitsky of Togo. It also brought together the blocs which had emerged among african states - the Casablanca group, the Monrovia group and the African and Malagasy Union. As result of the meeting the two blocs were to be dissolved although the third was to continue.

THE CHARTER of ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY
The most important achievement of the conference was the adoption of the Charter of the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U). The Charter has two important features. Firstly, it defines Africa as consisting of all the Continental African States, together with Madagascar and all the islands surrounding Africa; and secondly, it lays down the right of all Africans to control their own destiny, and recognizes their aspirations to Brotherhood in a larger unity that is above ethnic and national differences.
      The aid of the organization are simple: to promote the unity of African States; to coordinate efforts to achieve a better life for African people; to defend their sovereignty and independence; to eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa; to promote international cooperation within the framework of the United Nations.
  In order to achieve these aims, the member-states agreed to harmonize their general policies in six different fields: in politics and diplomacy; in economic cooperation, including transport and communications; in education; in health and sanitization; in science and technology; in defence and security.

What are the ORGANS OF ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)?
The Organization accomplishes its aims through four institutions which is set up, following the Addis Ababa Conference – the Assembly of Heads of States and Government; the Council of Ministers; the General Secretariat; and the Commission of Mediation, Conciliation, and Arbitration. 
The Assembly of Heads of State and Government: This is the Supreme organ of the Organization of African Unity within the provisions of the charter, it discusses matters of common interest to Africa with the purpose of coordinating general policy. It also reviews the structure, functions and activities of all the organs and any specialized agencies and committees which are created from time to time in accordance with the Charter.

  The Assembly itself consists of the Head of States or Head of Government of each member-state or his accredited representative. It meets at least once a year; or at the request of any member-state it may meet in extraordinary session, but this requires the approval of two-third of the member-states. In Assembly each member has one vote, and all resolutions are determined by two-thrid majority. Questions of procedure are determined by simple majority. Two-third of the total membership constitutes a quorum at any meeting of the Assembly.

The Council of Ministers: The second principal organ of the Organization of African Unit, consists of the foreign Minister of each member-state, or such other Minister as the state nominates. It meets at least twice a year, but like the Assembly may meet in extraordinary session if this is requested by a member-state and approved by two-thirds of the O.A.U members.
The Council is responsible to the Assembly, and it functions are;
• To prepare agenda for the conference of the Assembly
• To implement the decisions of the Assembly
• To coordinate the inter-African cooperation in accordance with the Assembly's instructions and in conformity with the provision of the Charter.
 In Council's deliberations, each member has one vote, and all resolutions are determined by simple majority. The council has the power to make it own rules of procedure and two-thirds of the total membership constitutes a quorum for any meeting.

The Secretary General: The Organization of African Unity has a permanent administrative Secretary General who is appointed by the Assembly on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers. The Charter also makes provision for one or more Assistant Secretaries General. The functions of the Secretariat are similar to those of the U.N.O.
Secretariat — That is it conducts all the correspondence and administrative work of the organization and controls it finance, in short it is like a number of Ministries combined into one. In the performance of their duties, the Secretary General and his staff are not able to seek or receive instructions from any government or any other authority external to the organization. Each member-state has undertaken to respect the exclusive character of the responsibilities vested in the Secretary General and his staff, and not to influence them in the discharge thereof. 

THE COMMISSION OF ORGANIZATION of AFRICAN UNITY
Member-states are pledged to settle disputes among themselves by peaceful means. To this end they decided at the Addis Ababa Conference to establish a Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration. The Charter also empowered the Assembly to set up such specialized commissions as it considers necessary. It was recommended that the following five should be established;
[1] The Economic and Social Commission
[2] The Educational and Cultural Commission
[3] The Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Commission
[4] The Defence Commission
[5] The Scientific, Technical and Research Commission.
It was decided that each commission should consist of the Ministers of the member-states within whose portfolios these subjects lay, or such other ministers as the Governments of the memeber-states might appoint.

THE BUDGET
The Charter makes provision for a Budget, which is prepared annually by the Secretary General and approved by the Council of Ministers. Member-states contribute to the Budget in accordance with the scale of assessment of the United Nations. It was also agreed at Addis Ababa that no member-state should be assessed at an amount exceeding 20 per cent (20%) of the Annual Regular Budget of the organization. In March, 1965 the Council of Ministers, meeting in Nairobi, approved the 1965-1966 Budget which totalled more than £1,440,000. This was the first complete Budget adopted since its establishment. At the same meeting a resolution was passed calling upon the Secretary General, M. Diallo Telli, to enquire into the feasibility of building a permanent headquarters for the organization. The Council of Ministers requested the Secretariat to discuss in consultation with Ethiopia the possible acquisition of land in Addis Ababa.
   The Organization of African Unity has also set up a special budget for the work of its Liberation Committee. The latter gives aid to liberation movements in Portuguese Africa and the Republic of South Africa. In Addis Ababa it was recommended that volunteers be raised for these movements, and a coordinating Committee was set up in Da-res-Salaam for this work.

AMENDMENT OF THE CHARTER
The Organization of African Unity Charter may be amended or revised if any member-state makes a written request to the Secretary General to that effect. The proposed amendment may not be submitted to the Assembly for consideration until all the member-states have been informed of it and a period of one year has elapsed. The amendment is not effective unless it is approved by at least two-thirds of all the meber-states.

MEMBERSHIP OF THE O.A.U
There are now 38 members. Gambia was admitted as the 36 on March 9th, 1965 and since then Botswana (formerly Bechuanaland) and Lesotho (formerly Basutoland) have been admitted.

Postscripts
1. The Casablanca Group included Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, the United Arab Republic, and Libya 
2. The Monrovia Group consisted of Nigeria, Liberia, Tunisia, Sierra Leone, Togo and the Brazzaville Group (which included all ex-French sub-saharan states except Guinea and Mali)
3. This was originally a Union formed by the Brazzaville states, constituting a rival to the Ghana-Guinea-Mali bloc. 
4. Whether the Head of State or the Head of Government attends depends upon the Constitution of the member-states. Formerly Nigeria was represented by the Prime Minister, who was Head of Government, since Head of State (the President) was constitutional Head only. Nowadays she is represented by the Head of the Federal Military Government or his delegate. 
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Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Kogi State Uni 2019/2020 Departmental Cut off

The management of the Kogi State University, Anyigba, has released the minimum cut-off mark required to be qualified for admission into the various Undergraduate programmes for the 2019/2020 Academic Session.



The various courses and their admission cut-off marks are shown below;

KSU Departmental Admission Cut-off Marks For 2019/2020 Session

1. Faculty of Agriculture
(a) Agriculture 40
(b) Home science 40
(c) Food science 45
(d) Fishery and aquaculture 40
2. Arts and humanities
(a) English and literary stu. 47
(b) CRS. 40
(c) History and international studies 45
(d) Islamic studies. 40
(e) Philosophy 40
(f) Theater arts 43

3. Faculty of education
(a) Edu/Eng. 42
(b) Edu/CRS 40
(c) Edu/biology. 42
(d) Edu/Geography. 40
(e) Edu/Economic. 40
(f) Edu/Islamic. 40
(g) Edu/ social studies. 40
(h) Library and information sci. 45

4. Faculty of Law
(a) Common Law. 66

5. Faculty of management science
(a) Accounting. 43
(b) Banking and finance. 46
(c) Business administration. 42
(d) Public administration. 43

6. Faculty of natural sciences
(a) Biochemistry. 53
(b) Chemistry. 44
(c) Computer science. 45
(d) Geology. 44
(e) Industrial chemistry. 65
(f) Mathematics. 40
(g) Statistics 40
(h) Physics. 40

7. Faculty of social sciences
(a) Economics. 41
(b) Geography and environ. Sci. 41
(c) Mass communication. 51
(d) Political science. 46
(e) Sociology. 50

If you observe any error or correction please feel free to let us know by using the comment section.
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Resumption date 2019/2020 for DELSU Postponed

This is to inform all newly and returning students of Delta State University, Abraka that the resumption date for the 2019/2020 academic session has be postponed.

  All students are by this information advised to take note of the new date which is September 29th, 2019. All inconveniences caused by this postponement is highly regretted as this is for the betterment of the student and officials of the school.

You will recall that it was earlier posted that the resumption date for According to the management, the 2nd semester resumption date is from Sunday, 10th March to Sunday 17th March, 2019 while lectures begin 18th April, 2019 this was as a result of the postponement of the 2019 general elections, Senate of the university at its 164th regular meeting held on Monday, 18th February, 2019, reviewed and approved the resumption date for the Second Semester 2018/2019 Academic Session
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NIN Compulsory From 2020 UTME registration says JAMB

Jamb Boss Dr Fabian Benjamin has hereby make a call out on all 2020 prospective UTME candidates to acquire the National Identification Number (NIN). He emphasized that NIN is very important as this will help to checkmate and reduce malpractice in UTME exams from 2020.

“The JAMB will, during the 2020 registration exercise, use the National Identity Number generated after successful registration with the National Identity Management Commission.

“This includes the capturing of biometric and other necessary details for the registration of all prospective candidates.

“Candidates are enjoined to register as the board will no longer be responsible for the capturing of candidates’ biometrics ahead of the examination, as all information required will be uploaded from the data captured by the NIMC

“Henceforth, the NIN will be compulsory for the UTME registration,” Benjamin said.

According to Benjamin, the board has made an adequate arrangement with the NIMC for prospective candidates to be registered at the examination centres or with its licensed agents.

He said that for such candidates who had registered and had acquired the NIN before attaining the age of 16, they would be required to update their NIN.
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Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Nagging Wife part 3

Fred did not admit it but at that point he really felt less of a man. He felt incapable of providing for his wife and he also felt like he had really failed her. There was so much going on through his mind as they went to bed that night. His wife curled up to him like a baby as she slept but he couldn’t stop thinking, he felt very bad. As the thoughts flew over his head he thought of the company he worked for and how they had been advertising loans if people were interested. Fred knew that wasn’t the path he wanted to take, loans weren’t something he ever wanted to get into in his marriage but he didn’t want to disappoint his wife. The following morning as they dressed up in readiness for work Fred had something to say to his wife. “baby when you get the loan forms bring them home so I also go through them and advice” he said. “but honey thought we agreed that I should apply” she said. ‘yes my love we have agreed but I just want to read through the terms so that we can agree on how best to pay it back.. I want to help you” he said. ‘ok my love.. I will do that” Unknown to her, Fred had made up his mind and he was going to apply for the loan at work. They got on a bus together and as usual they finally part ways at the station as they went to their respective places.

“I can’t wait for the day when I will no longer have to say bye to you at the station” she said. “Soon honey” he said. “Ya I can’t wait for that day when you will be dropping me at work and then you equally proceed your way” she said. “ok honey.. enjoy your work” he said before pecking her cheek. They both would board different buses to their destinations  and the routine was always like that. **************************************************************************************************** “I remember asking you and you refused” the director said as she looked at Fred. “sir I had no idea I would be needing it but from the look of things … well its seems I do” he replied. The director had initially talked to Fred and had asked him about the loans but he wasn’t interested. Everyone else in the company took a loan but he was reluctant. “marriage has come with some serious realities isn’t it?’ the director smiled. Fred chuckled. “sir I need to get a car” he said. “I understand.. you know I actually commend you for one thing.. very few men get married without taking a loan. These women can drive you crazy sometimes” she said. “ya.. well i stood my ground madam.. with this economy I couldn’t get a loan for a wedding.. and then start paying back money after the event?” “You are wise young man.. you are very wise” The director quickly pulled a form and handed it over to him. “We are giving up to k20,000.. just state how much and fill in the details provided…the loan will be ready in 5days after application” the director said. “Thank you mum..... I will go through and then will return the forms by knocking off time” he said. ‘Take your time..” “I will.. thanks” Fred said before taking his leaving. Fred read the forms thoroughly before making up his mind and finally signing the papers. He handed the papers over to the director before he left work that day. As he headed home with his wife he happily talked to her about how work was but clearly omitted the loan part. “Honey can you imagine I completely forgot about the loan papers?” “don’t worry yourself my love… I actually have news for you but I will tell you when we get home” he said. ****************************************************************************************************
 TWO WEEKS LATER Fred was so happy to finally go home with the car that he promised his wife, he managed to get to get a nice car from a japan seller and the car was delivered just 5days after purchase. The cars were all in transit and he luckily picked one from those that were enroute to Zambia from South Africa. “Today I will sleep in the car” Mayaba said excitedly as she hugged her husband. That night she was the best wife and she treated him to some good food. For that week all was absolutely perfect and fred was enjoying seeing his wife in that mood, it was a wonderful mood.

The English premier league was soon about to start and Mayaba  had heard about it so many times as Fred kept talking about it. When the time finally came fred had bought a jersey for his favourite team and he was in the supportive spirit. “baby I just wanted to tell you in advance that since the game is starting I will be going to watch with my friends at a nearby lodge.. that’s only for afternoon matches” he said. “why? Is there no tv at home?’ she asked ‘honey its different.. you don’t even watch soccer.. its interesting when we go to support as friends” he said. “I see… well in that case we shall be going together” she said. “Baby it’s all guys and imagine me moving with my wife..” he said. “in that case then I will be dropping you off and picking you up when the game is done”
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Representative Democracy

The principle of representation has become a key element in modern democracy. It is the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy. The representatives form an independent ruling body charged with the responsibility of acting im the people's interest, but not as their proxy representatives nor necessarily always according to their wishes, but with enough authority to exercise swift and resolute initiative in the face of changing circumstances. These representatives are usually elected in free and fair multi-party elections. They are elected by, and responsible to, particular subset of the total electorate. This is called his or her constituency. In this post, we shall look at elements of representative democracy, some basic features that makes it opposed to autocracy and direct form of democracy and why it is the modern form of government. Emphasis would be made on the principle of the rule of law as a major characteristics of representative democracy and the need for adequate safeguards of the minorities in a democratic system.

Meaning of Representative Democracy
Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy. It involves the selection of government officials by people being represented. It involves election of the representatives with the majority or a plurality of the votes. Representative may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (constituency), or represent the entire electorate proportionally (proportional system), with some using a combination of the two. Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums. One major element of representative democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people, to act in people's interest, they (people) retain the freedom to exercise their own judgement as how best to do so.

CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY 

(I) Popular sovereignty: In a representative democracy, popular sovereignty resides in the people. Although they elect the representatives to act on their interest, the people still retain the freedom to exercise their own judgment as to how best to do so.

(ii) Supremacy of the Constitution: There is always a constitution in a country or state where representative democracy is practiced. This guides the operation of government and curtail the powers of the representatives. It states the fundamental rights and freedom of the citizens and terms of office of elected officials among others.

(iii) Periodic Elections: There is the existence of elections at regular intervals as stipulated by the constitution. The elections are conducted for peaceful hand over from one government to the other after the expiration of their tenure. This election must be free and fair, devoid of any violation of the electoral procedures.

(iv) Electoral Body: For an acceptable election to be conducted, there must be an independent and unbiased electoral body comprising of credible professionals who will coordinate the activities of the political parties and the Democratic process in general.

(v) An independent Judiciary: There is always an independent judicial organ of government which must have power to declare legislative acts unconstitutional when they go beyond their power, protect individual liberty and punish offenders of the law.

(vi) Supremacy of the Rule of law: The rule of law is always guaranteed in a reprentative democracy.This implies that no person is above the law,no person can be punished by the state except for a breach of the law, and that no one can be convited of breaching the law exception the manner set forth by the law itself.

(vii) Multi-party System: In a representative democracy, representatives are elected in multi-party election.There exist many political parties under which people contest for political position and this enables the citizens to choose among alternative, candidates and programs.

(viii) The opinion of the people is always very strong in a representative democracy: The opinion of the people matters a lot when governments want to take a decision on a particular policy program.

(x) Respect for fundamental Human Rights: In a democratic country,the right of the citizens is up held as written in the constitution. If any of these rights are abused, the individual has the right to seek redress in the court.

(xi) Majority Rule: This means that the wishes of the majority over weigh that of the minority.

(xiii) It gives room for freedom of expression and of the press: This is so because people can comment freely and make constructive criticisms.
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Monday, September 23, 2019

The Nagging Wife - Part 2

Mayaba and Fred had safely sailed through the first days of marriage and they were soon counting down to their one month anniversary. They had both returned to work and soon settled in well, the two would go for work together in the morning by bus and they would wait around for each other and board a bus to go home again after work. This was the everyday routine and it was something Mayaba had gotten used to. She however was soon getting tired. One day after they dropped off at the station, Mayaba passed a comment that got Fred thinking a lot. “sometimes these walks can get really boring..” she sighed. Although the statement was not so direct, Fred noticed it had something to do with Mayaba wanting a car. He wanted to raise the issue with her but he instead just let it slide and went about humming a song as they walked. “Baby..” Mayaba called. “yes my love” he replied “where do you see us in the next one year?” she asked. “well that’s an interesting question to ask.. we will be together and living happily my love.. whats up?” “well honey I was just thinking..” she said. “what?” “I was thinking maybe we should start thinking about our lives seriously..” she said. “oh.. are we not serious?” he asked wonderingly “come on not that.. just that honey I think before the babies come we need a car” she said. ‘I see... We will get one” “Yes before the babies come..” she insisted. “Well my love…. In that case then let’s wait a little longer before we start thinking of having babies” Fred replied. “Fred?” “What? We can wait and then have the babies when we have a car... Did I say anything wrong?” he asked. “no.. I was just thinking that you would say something different” she said. When they arrived at home Mayaba walked into the house looking very upset and Fred wondered what he had done this time around. She quickly went to the bedroom and changed before she went to prepare some food in her small kitchen. Fred hated seeing her that way so he quickly joined her in the kitchen to clear the air. “My beautiful princess.. whats the matter?” he asked. “Honey do I bother you?” she asked as she washed some vegetables by the sink. “no my love you don’t.. why would you bother me?” She was queit as she cleared the dishes until he was forced to get to the subject which he knew she was avoiding. “baby you know I love you?” he asked her “I do..” she muttered. “no say it like you mean it…” he teased. “yes I do..” “can you stop cooking for now.. we will have noodles.. come on lets go and watch tv” he said. Mayaba reluctantly put the food back and went to the living room while fred quickly got their noodles ready. They sat to eat and later went to bed. After what seemed like the best reconciliation they had ever had Mayaba was looking at her husband and she had a question. “yes go ahead.. I am listening” he replied “honey… can I get a loan?” “for what?’ he asked her. “For a car” she replied. “My love.. we can buy the car without the loan .. let’s just wait a little longer.. Chances of me getting that job I applied for are really high trust me” he said. Mayaba sighed. “I know that look on your face” he said.
 “honey.. the government is offering us affordable loans” she said. “Usually people plan before they make such decisions.. can we leave this topic to another day?” he asked. “honey lets talk about it now” she insisted. “ok first tell me why you want to get the car now... why now?” he asked. ‘because it’s a necessity .. honey.. how much do we spend on transport everyday? To top it all we also need to buy lunch at work…. We can go cheap by getting a car with minimum fuel consumption and that will save us time as I can also be preparing meals for work. Now I can’t because we wake up too early” she said. “I see.. well there’s a valid point there” he said. “so can I apply for the loan tomorrow?” she asked. “so soon?” “honey come on.. we need it” she said. “ok fine.. go ahead my love” he said. As he attempted to touch her she had another thing to say. “yes my love.. what?” “my family talks too much so when the vehicle comes we will pretend you bought it” she said. Fred looked at her wonderingly as he had no idea how to react to what she said. “actually I prefer you start driving it.. you will be dropping me at work and you will be picking me up” she said. Fred listened to her and he nodded his head. “ok my love..”

Read continuation here part 3 https://www.edulect.org/2019/09/the-nagging-wife-part-3.html

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The Nagging Wife

“It will be a beautiful home..”  Mayaba said as she looked around. “yes it will be honey.. Slowly... Slowly... we will soon fill it up” Fred said The two stared at their small house which they had finished decorating. Straight from church where they had their marriage blessing, the two proceeded to pick up some items that they that had put on layby in a Chinese shop in town. They cleared the balance on those items and took them home. The items included a deep freezer, small upright fridge, a two plate cooker that came with an oven, a 32 inch plasma television, pressing iron, some cooking pots, cutlery, a set of kitchen curtains a plastic mat for the small kitchen, a carpet for the living room and a double bed mattress. They couldn’t afford to get the whole bed from the shop so they had a carpenter make the bottom part for them. “it looks good.. sad part is we did not buy couches and we will still be using my old living room curtains…” Fred added. “honey for now we can work with what we have. But you have to make a plan” Mayaba encouraged him. “you must be exhausted” he said to her. “yes.. scrabbing the floor and applying polish.. but it looks good honey what do you think?” she asked her husband. “baby it looks good don’t worry” fred said ‘Wow.. this isn’t how I imagined starting my home” Mayaba sighed. “I know I owe you the wedding of your dreams honey but you know we were going to wait forever.. my job right now cant..” “shhh my love” Mayaba whispered as she covered his mouth. “I love you honey.. I was just saying.. we both had different plans but I wouldn’t trade this feeling for anything in the world… trust me..” she said. The two went in a warm embrace before they agreed to lock up and have a meal out. “we will have supper from hungry lion today” Fred said. ‘honey you don’t have to make it so obvious..” she giggled. The two locked up their tiny one bedroom house and took a taxi to waterfalls mall from chelstone where they staying. As they headed to the mall Mayaba was very quiet, it was clear she was still taking in a lot of things. That morning she had worn a dress she bought from mud boutique to say her vows to the love of her life, no doubt the dress was beautiful and she looked good as she paired it with a fascinator but her heart broke as she didn’t get to wear the wedding dress she dreamt of  all her life. Mayaba had pictured herself as a princess, she wanted to be in a princess gown and she imagined a long chapel veil that would sweep the red carpet. So many fairytales but none came true, none not one. Mayaba had postponed her wedding twice already as Fred didn’t seem to have the money ready for their special day. Fred had fulfilled all his duties as per tradition, he paid lobola and now he was short of money. Fred was a graduate with a degree in gender studies while Mayaba was a secondary school teacher with a degree in biology and mathematics. They both made beautiful plans while on campus about how they would marry and be happy; however after school Mayaba immediately got a job under ministry of education while Fred struggled. He sent numerous applications but to no avail. Finally a school took him up, the school however was just opened and they were looking for someone to head the careers department and it suited his qualifications somehow. “Baby we are here... actually we need to pass through ShopRite and buy some food so we stock the fridge. And just overall what we will be eating” he said. “yes honey” she sighed “lets eat then we go ahead and buy what we need..” he said. “baby… I thought you would be excited to share the wedding pictures on Facebook seeing that you were so excited to announce the engagement” Fred said. “No… I mean later.. we don’t have to share any pictures.. we can simply just change the status.. besides Facebook is not really a place I like to talk about my life these days” Mayaba said. Fred knew she was lying as he already knew his woman, she loved to show off and this was only happening because Mayaba did not have her dream wedding. “we will share eventually” she added. They had just got their food and settled to eat when Mayaba suddenly picked a menu and covered her face” “baby what it is it?” fred asked. “please cover me..” Mayaba said. “I cover you? We are in a public place. how can I cover you?” he asked. Shortly Mayaba got up and hurried away, she returned after a few minutes. “I saw Rachel .. is she the reason you were hiding Mayaba?” Fred asked wonderingly. “yes.. she is too nosey..” “too nosey or are you just ashamed of you friend seeing you at hungry lion?” he asked. “come on honey…” Mayaba said as she faked a smile. “actually honey maybe we should have just taken take away” Mayaba said. Fred looked at his wife sadly as he swallowed the insults, he ate his chips and chicken while Mayaba kept looking around to make sure no one saw her. They finished eating and finally bought a few foodstuffs before heading home.

Read continuation here https://www.edulect.org/2019/09/the-nagging-wife-part-2_23.html
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