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Thursday, April 19, 2018

Two Prisoners Enrolled For PhD In Nigeria

Two inmates of Kirikiri Prison in Lagos have defied the psychological drawback associated with incarceration by enrolling for doctorate degrees at the National Open University (NOUN).

The two doctoral candidates were among the three inmates who were awarded masters degrees by NOUN Vice Chancellor, Prof. Abdalla Adamu.

Tunwashe Kabiru and Oladipupo Moshood enrolled for Doctorate Degrees in Business Administration and Peace and Conflict Resolution, respectively.

Speaking at the ceremony, Comptroller General, Nigeria Prisons Service (NPS), Ja’afaru Ahmed, urged other inmates to make use of the opportunity provided by NOUN to further their education.

Ahmed said that the NPS had empowered many inmates with education from secondary to masters degree level as part of efforts to reform the prisoners.

“We have collaborated with Ministry of Labour to give inmates Trade Test Grades one, two and three and for those who want to further their education, we create an enabling environment for them.

“For those furthering their education, some have done WAEC while some have proceeded to university for degrees; 420 inmates are currently studying in NOUN and 10 are in 400 level,” Ahmed said.

Presenting the degrees, NOUN Vice Chancellor, Prof. Adamu, urged the inmates to take advantage of the institution’s free education to prisoners from first degree to doctorate levels.

Adamu said that most of the inmates chose entrepreneurial courses to enable them become independent after serving their jail terms.

He appealed to the NPS to provide an enabling environment for NOUN to provide necessary equipment for inmates at its study centres in prisons.

“We focus our attention on making prisoner scholars; all the courses taken by inmates are free from first degree to PhD level.

“Hope should never be lost even when you are a prisoner, it is when you are educated that you will get your absolute freedom,” Adamu said.
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Animal Improvement

Animal improvement refers to the conscious attempts by man to

MEANING AND AIMS OF Animal Improvement

Animal improvement refers to the conscious attempts by man to improve and produce better breeds of farm animals to satisfy human needs. 
The aims of animal improvement can be outlined as follows:
1. To increase the productivity of animals: Farm animals are improved upon in order to obtain higher returns or output from animals. For instance, quantity of milk in dairy cattle, mohair in goat, litter size in pigs, number of eggs per bird, etc can be improved upon for more profitable livestock business. 

2. To improve he quality of animal products; for example, yolk size in poultry, hair quality in sheep and goat, beefiness in cattle and leanness of meat in pig, butter fat content in milk etc. 

3. To develop animals with increased ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions such as extreme heat or cold and draught. 

4. To develop animals that are resistant to pests and diseases. 

5. To produce animals that are early maturing, that is animals with higher growth rate and efficient food conversion ability. 

6. To produce animals that can be used for specific purposes, for example bull for work, dogs for hunting and detective operations, and other purposes. 

Processes Of Animal Improvement Introduction

  This entails bringing exotic or foreign breeds of animals into a new place or environment. Introduction could be from a foreign country and it involves the physical movement of the animal or it semen from its original place to a new place. 
   Introduction can be used in upgrading the performance of local breeds of animals. It also leads to the introduction of better characteristics like high yield, early maturity. 
 However, the process could be hampered by problem of acclimatization, that is, the animal may not be able to adapt to its new environment. Also, it can lead to the introduction of new pest and/ or diseases, especially where there are no quarantine services. The method is expensive due to transportation cost and in terms of the special care which the animal must be provided initially to enable it survive. Animals that have been introduced into Nigeria include Holstein Friesian from Holland, N,dama from Guinea, Rhode Island, Red Fowl from the United States of America. 

This is the picking or choosing of one or more animals from a group for the purpose of obtaining higher performance. Usually, the animals that satisfy the farmer's needs are picked and the effort is a conscious one which follows observations made, and records kept by the animal breeder. Selection is normally followed by breeding to obtain better results. 
Selection could be:
  • Pedigree Selection : This is the selection of animals that is based on parental record. 
  • Progeny Selection: In this type, selection is based on the records of the offspring performance. 
  • Family Selection : This is the selection which is based on the overall performance of the members of one family, that id the parents and siblings (offspring). 
  • Individual Selection : In this type of selection, animals are picked simply on the basis of individual performance within the group. 
  • Mass Selection : This is the selection of a number of animals that are found to perform better than the average of the entire group. 
   Selection is the simplest and cheapest process or method of animal improvement. It can be done by the illiterate farmer. However, the process could be too slow for animals that have long generation intervals or period. 

 This is the mating of animals of the same species. The essence is to combine or transfer desirable qualities found to be present in two different animals. 
  • In-breeding: This involves mating closely related animals like brother and sister, mother and son, father and daughter. This used to perpetuate a desirable quality in the animals. 
  • Out-breeding: Here, far related animals within a breed are matted, for example, second cousin with second cousin. 
  • Cross-breeding: This involves mating of unrelated animals, that is animals belonging to different breeds but of the same species. For example, N'dama cattle with Muturu or white Leghorn with Rhode Island Red. This is used to combine desirable qualities existing in different breeds like disease resistance, high productivity and other qualities. 
  • Line breeding: Mating of less closely related animals but belonging to the same lineage. For example half brother with half sister. 
      Breeding, particularly cross breeding leads to the development of heterosis or hybrid vigor in animals. Heterosis is the dominance of genes responsible for the desired characteristics and the corresponding excessiveness of the genes that are unfavorable for such character or quality. With breesing, qualities found to be present in two different animals can be brought together and this leads to the development of new breeds that are better performing than the already existing ones. 
However, the process is highly scientific and technical, requiring knowledge in breeding patterns and cycles of the animals. Thus, it cannot be practiced by all farmers except those technically trained. Also hybrids may not breed true-to-tyoe and mutation (deviation from the normal generic constitution of the animal) may occur thereby evolving breeds of animals that will not satisfy the breeder's interest. In addition, it could spread diseases among animals especially venereal diseases. The process is too slow for animals that have long gestation, maturation and generation periods. 

Artificial Insemination

 This instrument of animal breeding involves the artificial introduction or insemination of male semen into the female reproductive tract. It does not involve mating or or coition between make and female animals. The semen collected from male with the aid of a teaser (artificial vagina) or from the tract of a freshly mated female animal. It is diluted and stored in deep freezer at a very low temperature until it needed. Injection of the female into the vagina can be done with a syringe. 
  For artificial insemination to succeed, the oestrus cycle, and especially the relationship between 'heat' period and ovulation must be known. This is important because in most animals (except poultry), sperms can only be alive for few hours after insemination into the female reproductive tract. Sperms may be wasted if insemination is done at the wrong time.  
Artificial insemination has several advantages. These include :
1. It is cheaper to import or transfer animal sperm than a whole live animal. 

2. It is an economic way of using only a few proven males for many. 

3. Many females of different sizes can be services. 

4. It reduces the risk of transmitting diseases particularly veneral diseases. 

5. The semen of a good bull can be collected, stored and used over a long time even if it dies. 

On the other hand, the process requires considerable capital in terms of equipment, storage and management of the animals. Also, it is highly technical and only trained farmers can practice it. The method had a high demand on the farmer in terms of time and labour because he has to be present at all times to detect animals on heat's and then inseminate them. 
This is so because if heat's period is not accurately determined, the method is bound to fail and all efforts wasted. 
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Monday, April 16, 2018

Population Studies

Learn everything about population including factors, sampling, size density
Population is defined as the total number of organisms of the same species living together in a given area at a particular time in an ecosystem, the community is made up of many populations of different species.

Factors Affecting Population

Factors which may affect the population of organisms in a given habitat include :
  1. Birth rate 
  2. Mortality (death rate)
  3. Immigration 
  4. Availability of food
  5. Seasonal climatic changes 
  6. Breeding periods 
  7. Natural disasters examples earthquake, volcano etc. 

Population Studies By Sampling 

   Population studies can easily be carried out in a habitat especially in a terrestrial habitat by sampling into making use of an instrument called a Quadrant or Transects. 
 Image of quadrant 

 Image of Transect. 

A Quadrant is a square frame made from thick wire used for determining the population of organisms per unit area of land or water. 

Population Size

This refers to the total number of the same kind in a given area or habitat.  Sarge population stands a better chance of surviving dangerous and unfavorable conditions such as fire, diseases etc. 


Choose and locate sample plot and identify the plant species in the plot measure the area using a measuring tape to know the area of the habitat throw or toss the quadrant randomly at intervals for up to 10 times or above. After each throw or toss record the number in area of quadrant, the total number of each species obtained from several throws (10times) divided by the number of the species per quadrant. The average when multiplied by the total area of the habitat and then divided by the area of quadrant gives the population size of the species.
Population density X Area of habitat habitat = p size.


     Population density is defined as the number of individual organism per unit area or volumes of the habitat. 
Mathematically it can be calculated as frequency of species = X
Numbers of toss or throws = Y
Therefore population density of species = Z/area of quadrant.

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Sunday, April 15, 2018

Useful English Phrases To Say When You Forgot Something

There are useful English phrases to say when you forget something. Forgetting something happens to everyone. It can be embarrassing sometimes. Let’s quickly review the basic ways to say you forget something:
I forget.
I can’t remember.
I don’t remember.
I’m sorry I wasn’t at the meeting. I forgot about it.
We forget things in different ways, and in English there are different phrases you can use to communicate that you forget something.

1. “I lost my train of thought.”
lose your train of thought
= forget what you were thinking, right in the middle of thinking about it
A “train of thought” = a connected series of thoughts or ideas in your head
You’re telling someone a story or about an idea you had, but you get distracted, or you are interrupted by something, and you forget what you were talking about.
What was I saying? I lost my train of thought.

I was in the middle of telling a story, but the phone rang and I lost my train of thought.

2. “It slipped my mind.”
slip one’s mind
= forget something
I can’t believe I forgot her birthday. It completely slipped my mind!
We had a meeting at 1pm today. Did it slip your mind?
He forgot to get some milk at the grocery store. I guess it just slipped his mind.

Pronunciation note: Remember, the -ed at the of slipped is pronounced /t/. The -ed is not pronounced as a separate syllable.

3. “It’s on the tip of my tongue!”
be on the tip of one’s tongue
You know that you know something, but you can’t remember it at that moment!
I know this! I know this! It’s on the tip of my tongue! His name is … oh, I can’t remember!

Wait. Don’t tell me. I know this song. The name is on the tip of my tongue!

4. “It doesn’t ring a bell.”
ring a bell
= something is familiar, but you can’t completely remember it
His name rings a bell, but I can’t remember what he looks like.
Have you seen that new TV show, the one about the married couple?
~ It doesn’t ring a bell.
= it doesn’t sound familiar, I don’t recognize it. 

5. “It went in one ear and out the other.”
go in one ear and out the other
= forgot something as soon as you hear it, forget something quickly
You are listening to someone speaking, but you are not really listening carefully. When the other person says something, you hear it but you don’t remember it.
He told me is his name, but it went in one ear & out the other.
She won’t remember. Everything you tell her goes in one ear and out the other!
I’m sorry. I didn’t hear what you said. It went in one ear and out the other. I’m very distracted today.
Be careful! This is not a nice thing to say to someone, because you are saying that you aren’t paying attention to him or her!

6. “Can you refresh my memory?”
refresh one’s memory
= help someone remember something
It doesn’t ring a bell. Can you refresh my memory?
I have to read my notes again from the previous meeting to refresh my memory.
Be careful! “Let me refresh your memory” is a common phrase, but it can have a negative meaning. People like to forget bad or negative experiences. Sometimes people say “let me refresh your memory” in an angry way to make someone remember something negative.
“You don’t remember me? Let me refresh your memory. You stole my phone!“

7. “I had a senior moment.”
have a senior moment
(usually said by older people)
= a humorous way of saying that you momentarily can’t remember something simple because you are getting older
You can blame forgetting something on your age!
A senior citizen is an older person, usually someone who is 65 or older. (Sixty-five is the official retirement age in many countries.) Senior is often used by itself as a shortened form of senior citizen.
I had a senior moment. I forgot what my new car looked like and I spent 20 minutes looking for it in the parking lot.
I had a senior moment yesterday. I thought my brother was my son.
People like to joke that they are getting old when they are 30 or 40 years old. Sometimes a young person will say “I had a senior moment” or “I’m having a senior moment” as a way to say that they are getting old.

I hope you find it resourceful. 
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