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Saturday, December 9, 2017

Human Trafficking - Civic Education


Meaning of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is an illegal trade of human being for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or reproductive slavery, forced labour, etc. The major victims of human trafficking are women and children. When women are the persons being brought and sold, it is called women trafficking. When it is a forced labour, commercial sexual exploitation, etc.
Human trafficking should be rejected in its totality. Today, we see a number of human trafficking cases involving children and women. This should be discouraged.
       Many innocent girls and children became victims by means of threat, force, coercion and abduction or of the giving or receiving of payment to gain their consent for the purpose of exploitation.

Causes of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is caused by a number of factors, which we shall be analyzing below:
  1. Poverty : This is a situation of being poor. This situation or experience has led many people to fall victims of human trafficking. The traffickers promise them money and jobs. Upon arrival at their destinations, the victims are held against  their will and are forced to work or provide services to the traffickers. These services range from forced labour to commercialized sexual exploitation, etc.
  2. Unemployment : Due to the high level of unemployment in Nigeria, people would do anything to find greener pastures in other countries, especially Europe and America. So when these people are approached, they are easily deceived.
  3. Greed : this is a situation in which a person has a strong desire for more money, food, possessions, etc than he or she needs. These desires can lead such a person to be lured into commercialized sexual exploitation in the name of wanting to make money. Every individual should be contented with whatever he or she has. Contentment will help to resist any temptation that may come from traffickers.
  4. Low Self-esteem : Self esteem means self respect. It is a feeling of being satisfied with one's abilities. When one does not believe in himself or herself or does not respect his or her own abilities, such as an individual with low esteem can easily be lured away by sweet and vain promises of traffickers. It is important to respect ourselves and our abilities.
  5. Corruption: This is a dishonest, illegal or immoral behavior especially with someone with power or position of authority.
            Many people became victims of human trafficking as a result of someone exercising power, authority or position over them. Victims have no confidence to question the authority forcing them into this modern day slavery.
        Therefore, a strong appeal goes to people in power and positions of authority not to abuse their office, power and authority in order to subject a fellow human being to unpleasant experiences in situation.

Effects and Consequences of Human Trafficking 

The effects and consequences of human trafficking include thew following : 
  • Unwanted pregnancy : This occurs as a result of commercialized sexual exploitation.
  • HIV/AIDS: This occurs as a result of unprotected sexual exploitation of the victims.
  • Death: This occur as a result of illness or sickness which victims may experience without adequate health facilities.
  •  Stigmatization : This is a situation whereby a person's self worth is destroyed and he or she is treated harshly. Victims of human trafficking are stigmatized in the society.  
  • Violation of Fundamental Human Rights : Trafficking violates the fundamental rights of a person to life, liberty and the security of the person, and to be free from slavery of all forms.     

Efforts of Government and Individual To Stop Human Trafficking

Nigeria government has tried in full capacity to stop human trafficking in Nigeria. To end this, National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and other Related Matters (NAPTIP) was established. The establishment or creation of this agency is the federal government of Nigeria's response to addressing the scourge of human trafficking Nigeria.

Functions of NAPTIP:

  1. To adopt witness protection measures.
  2. Coordination of all laws on trafficking in person and related offences.
  3. Adoption of measures to increase the effectiveness of eradication of trafficking in person.
  4. To enhance effectiveness of law enforcement agents to suppress traffic in person.
  5. To establish proper communication channels, conduct research and work on improving international cooperation in the suppression of trafficking persons, by land, sea and air.
  6. To reinforce and supplement measures in bilateral and multilateral treaties and convections on trafficking in persons.
  7. To work in collaboration with other agencies or bodies that may ensure elimination and prevention of the root causes of the problem of trafficking in person.
  8. To strengthen and enhance effective legal means for international activities of traffic in persons.
  9. To strengthen cooperation between the Attorney-General of the Federation, Nigeria Police, Nigeria Immigration Services, Nigeria Customs Services, the Nigeria Prison services, welfare officials and all other agencies in the eradication of traffic in persons. 
  10. To take charge, supervise, control and coordinate the rehabilitation of trafficked persons.
  11. To investigate and prosecute traffickers.
Others ways through which government tried to eradicate trafficking in persons is enactment of law against human trafficking.                                                                  
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    Tuesday, December 5, 2017

    The Republican Constitution of 1963

    The Republican Constitution of 1963 was essentially the 1960 independence constitution rewritten with some minor modifications, and it came into operation on the 1st of October, 1963. It was in a bid to change the dominance of external affairs of Nigeria by Britain that a new constitution call the Republican Constitution of 1963 was proposed and adopted in 1963. With is constitution, the Queen ceased to be the Head of state and the executive function of the various units of the federation was no longer vested on her. She was also no longer a part of the legislative house of the federation.
      Under the new constitution, an elected president was substituted for the Queen as the Head of State. The judicial Service Commission was abolished and the president was empowered to appoint judges of the Supreme Court and those of the High Court of Lagos on the advice of the prime minister.
    Thus, the Supreme Court now became the final court of appeal in Nigeria. The power to declare any federal or regional law unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with any provision of the constitution (judicial review) was granted to the Federal Supreme Court.
       The emergency powers were also conferred on the federal government to declare state of emergency on any part of the country whenever there was war or serious crisis. Again, the constitution stipulated the procedure for the creation of new regions and the adjustment in the existing regional boundaries. It was in line with this procedure that the-Mid-western region was created in August, 1963.

    Features of the Republican Constitution of 1963

    1. The President of the Senate acted as president in the absence of the president of the federal republic of Nigeria.
    2. The membership of the senate was increased from 44 to 56.
    3. The fundamental human rights of citizens were entrenched in the constitution.
    4. The act that established the constitution was passed by the Nigerian parliament.
    5. The Queen of England ceased to be the constitutional Head of state. 
    6. The president was the Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces.
    7. The president was empowered to appoint, transfer, promote and discipline judges on the recommendation of  the Prime Minister.


    • The imperial basis of the Nigerian constitution was abolished.
    • The constitution was enacted by the Act of Nigerian Federal Parliament of 1963 which repealed the Nigerian Independence Act of 1960.
    • It made the supreme court the highest court of appeal in Nigeria.


    • It placed Nigeria under strong influenced of Britain, by allowing it to be a member of British Commonwealth.
    • The constitution created difficulties in creating new states, thereby making one of the regions to be larger than the three (3) others put together.

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    Sunday, December 3, 2017

    Relationships Of Organisms In An Ecosystem

    An ecosystem is a basic functioning unit of nation. It is made up of living organisms and their non-living environment. Both components, not only interact among themselves, but are also linked by a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes. We shall now study relationships of organisms in an ecosystem which result in the ecosystem being a functioning unit.

    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
    The basic component of an ecosystem is made up of all the living organisms in it. These organisms are divided into two main groups according to the way they feed; autotrophs and heterotrophs.


    Autotrophs are organisms that are able to use sunlight or chemical energy to manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances.
       Autotrophs extract inorganic nutrients and chemical energy from their non-living environment, that is from the abiotic  component of the ecosystem. Sunlight, the main energy source used by autotrophs, is obtained from the sun which is outside the ecosystem. By being able to use sunlight, these autootrophs forms a direct link between abiotic and biotic components of an ecoosystem. Since autotrophs are the only oorganisms that can produce food in an ecosystem, they are also known as primary food producers.
            Autotrophs use some food they produce for their activities and building their body tissues (growth). The rest is stored in various parts of their bodies.
           Autotrophs include all green plants, photosynthetic protists and some bacteria. In a terrestrial ecosystem, the main food producers are green plants especially flowering plants such as maize, rice, yam and pawpaw. In an aquatic ecosystem, however, the main food producers are protists like diatoms and algae like spirogyra, often referred to as the phytoplankton. 


    Heterotrophs cannot manufacture food. They feed on ready-made food which comes from the tissues of organisms in their environment, that is from biotic component of the ecosystem. This food is produced either directly or indirectly by autotrophs. Thus all heterotrophs depend ultimately on autotrophs for food.
       Heterotrophs use the nutrients and chemical energy stored in the food they feed on for their activities and building up their body tissues (growth). Excess nutrients and energy are often stored in various parts of their bodies.
    Heterotrophs include all animals, carnivorous plants, fungi, and most protists and bacteria. In an ecosystem, heterotrophs maybe consumers or decomposers. Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on other organisms. They include
    • all holozoic organisms such as herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers; and
    • parasites.
    Some examples of consumers in a terrestrial ecosystem are caterpillars, cows, dogs, lions, toads, hawks and vipers. The consumers in an aquatic habitat include cope pods, water fleas, tadpoles, larvae of insects and fishes.

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