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Saturday, October 7, 2017

Ecological Succession biology

This is a process by which ecosystem change over time. It is a product of complex interactions of biotic and a biotic factors. There is a gradual and continuous replacement of a dominant species until a relatively complex and stable ecosystem develops. The developmental stages are known as ere or several stages and final steady stage as a climax.

                           STAGES OF SUCCESSION

Primary Succession
The first set of organisms to inhabit a bare plot of land or a newly form pool, pond or lake.  They are the pioneer colonizers of such habitats.

Secondary Succession
The more complex organisms that follow the pioneer colonizers after nutrients have been made available for them by the earlier succession. The producers first arrives and prepare a favorable condition of existence for the consumers to survive.


  1. Those species that are important in the pioneer stage are not likely to be important at climax. 
  2. Biomas and the standing crop of organic matter decrease with succession. 
  3. The diversity of species increases with succession. There is increase in net community production and a corresponding increase in community respiration during succession. 
Natural selection pressure on species in the community shifts dramatically as ecological development proceeds towards steady state.

Credit to lectportal team for research on this
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Friday, October 6, 2017

Control of Vectors

A vector in biology is an animal which transmit a disease causing organism from one organism to another

Ways of Controlling Vectors Are

A. Mosquito : Draining of swamps to eliminate. Ate breeding ground for mosquito.

ii. Cutting bushes around house to reduce hiding places for adult mosquito.

iii. Sleeping in room protected by mosquito net to prevent bites.

iv. Using insect repellent on the body to eliminate mosquito bites.

V. Spraying oil on stagnant water to prevent larva stage from breathing or introduction of fishes or tadpole

i. Pit toilet must be converted always and kept clean.

ii. Spraying of insecticides to kill adult housefly in the compound.

iii. Dustbins should be covered properly.

IV. There should be adequate sanitation for proper sewage disposal.

v. To prevent them from breeding no dirty dump places and decomposing matter should be allowed around homes.
   Some  vectors such as ticks, mites and bedbugs can be controlled by good personal hygiene, clean environment and use of insecticides. 

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Ozigolo by Peddle E. Okao

                   ACT ONE SCENE ONE
(In front of his village house, Eduwu receives a visitor called Idahosa)

Eduwu: Idahosa, please have your seat and let me offer you Kola nuts. (Idahosa takes his seat while Eduwu calls out to Ozigolo to fetch some kola nuts)

Idahosa: Eduwu, you have done what most men cannot do in this village. Since your wife Osarobo died twenty years ago, you refused to remarry.

Eduwu: Why should I remarry? Oh, so that the new wife can maltreat my son Ozigolo.

Idahosa: But you have really tried playing the roles of father and mother for Ozigolo for twenty years. Can you continue to do this?

Eduwu: I thank God and our ancestors for giving me the will to pass through those hard times. After all, what is better than the two children my late wife, Osarobo, gave me? Any way, I thank God for making the job easy for me through my younger sister who took the girl to the city for up bringing.
(Ozigolo brings in the Kola nuts and seats by the father on the ground). 

Idahosa: (Breaks the kola after a short prayer)
But tell me, who can ever forget your lovely daughter Omosede in this village? But we believe that it pleased God and the ancestors to deny her of motherly love. That girl suffered.

Eduwu: Idahosa, please don't remind me of those pains and terrible times. I am sure something brought you to my house this morning. May I know what I can do for you?

Idahosa: E-du-wu! As brisk in speech as the great farmer that you are.  Well, what else would bring me to your house this morning? My wife told me you sustained an injury at the farm yesterday. I have come to express my sympathy. But Eduwu, exactly how did it happen?

Eduwu: I thank you for coming. Your sympathy is well received. Since you heard, it is only now you decided to come! Even your wife that informed you is yet to come here.  It is a shame that you, Idahosa, who is known to be my best friend in this village, could sleep throughout the night when you heard what happened to me. Well such is life!

Idahosa: You quarrel too much Eduwu. At least you can see for yourself that I am not particularly well myself. I am sorry.

Eduwu: it okay! I did not know that you were not fine. You know I don't hide my feelings. I hope you are better now?

Idahosa: it's not my own we are talking about now. Eduwu how did you sustain this injury?

Eduwu: (Takes a deep breath) well, you know how lazy my son Ozigolo is? Can you imagine a boy of his age loosing grip of his cutlass in the farm?

Idahosa: Um-m-m! You mean Ozigolo?

Eduwu: Yes, we were working in the farm when it happened. But it was a mistake.

Idahosa: When will you stop defending this boy? Your son cut you with a cutlass and you call it a mistake?

Eduwu: Idahosa! Leave my son alone. What do you want me to do? Eh? Okay! My son cut me with a cutlass, so I should kill him, will you give me your son to become mine?

Idahosa: Anyhow! You are right. Is it not only a cut? The pain is not usually much it does not last for so long?

Eduwu: (Getting Angry) But why do you always allow your lazy mind to control your busy mouth? Is there anything more painful than a deep cut like this from a cutlass?

Idahosa: Eduwu! There is.

Eduwu: And what could that be?

Idahosa: Nothing could be as painful as a "lie"

Eduwu: A lie?

Idahosa: Yes a "lie".  If you are lied against, it may never heal like a cut from a cutlass.

Eduwu: I know that a lie hurts, but a cut like this one? Eh! A cut is more painful!

Idahosa: No! A lie is!

Eduwu: I say a cut!

Idahosa: A lie

Eduwu: Ha-ha! I am telling you a cut! At least I have one on me!

Idahosa: I know. But it's not comparable to a lie!
(Ozigolo watches curiously as the two friends argue)

                               DRAW CURTAIN

To be continued on this same post, just subscribe to us through our email so you won't miss an update of this intriguing novel. 
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Tuesday, October 3, 2017

International Organization And Institutions

1. EEC - It means the European Economic Community, popularly known as the European Common Market.  It has nine (9) members.  And these includes : Britain,  Italy, Luxemburg, Netherland, France, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark and Western Germany.
 The aim of the organization is to eliminate all the barriers to free trade.  In other words, members can trade freely, and movement from one member country to another is strictly under control.
     The European Economic Community hopes to use common currency in the near future.

2. ECOWAS - This means Economic Community of West African States. It was established on the 26th of May, 1975. It is made up of 15 member nations, with its headquarters in Lagos ( Nigeria ). The countries include : Nigeria, Ghana, Benin Republic, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'voire, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso, Niger, Togo, Liberia and Mali.
 It is ran by a council of ministers and an executive secretary. The aims include :
(a) Encouraging free trade among member country.
(b) Adoption of a protocol on non-aggression.
(c) Free movement of people, goods and services : under this arrangement citizens of member states can reside in any ECOWAS country for 90 days without a visa.
(d) Carrying out common marketing research projects.
(e) Establishing common tariff and commercial policies.
(f) They hope to adopt a community telecommunication programme.

As we all know in everything good there must be a bad side and this is not left out, below are ECOWAS problems;

  1. Language barrier. 
  2. Currency : different currencies are used throughout ECOWAS states. 
  3. Former colonial ties are still predominant among member countries. 
  4. Failure to meet financial obligations. 
  5. The complete economic dependence on colonial masters. 
  6. Frequent border closures e.g Nigeria and Benin, Togo and Ghana e.t.c. 
Ideological differences I.e political, economics and socio-cultural ideas among member states.

3. IMF - IMF means International Monetary Fund.  It was established at the Breton Wood Conference in 1944.  It is made up of 44 Allied nations.  It has its headquarters in New York.
         IMF Aim is as follows;
To determine the realistic exchange rates of currency all over the world.

It acts as a central banking system for the world.


  • Common fund : All member countries contribute to the common fund based on the size of their national economies. 
  • The right to borrow from fund : All members have the right to call upon the fund for whatever currencies they needed upto a total of 25% of their quotas in any one year. 
  • Changes of parity : Because of the unrealistic post-war trading conditions, provision was made for devaluation or re-valuation of any member's currency to a certain percentage. 
  • Scarce currencies : The fund could declare a country's currency as scarce if that country's stock of currency falls below 75% due to excessive demand such currency is to be rationalized out to all member countries. 
  • The right to deactivate against some exports : in order to restore balance of payments crisis by debtor countries, a clause was introduced which gave the debtor persistent creditor.  The funds official has declared its currency to be scarce. 

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