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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Tolerance : The Wooden Spoon kids stories

Once upon a time, there lived in a city, a man and his two wives. Their home was always full of quarrels and unhealthy rivalry.

The two wives lived as cat and mouse, always at each other's throat. The man tried very hard to restore peace in the home but it was very difficult. The two women could not tolerate each other as they both seriously competed for their husband's love and favour.

   One day, the junior wife went to the stream to wash up the cooking pots and plates as the taps were all dried up in the city. As she washed , a wooden spoon slipped off her hand and rolled up with the waves down the middle of the stream.

It was the senior wife's spoon! What was going to happen next is better imagined than witnessed.

The woman thought of what to do. There was compromise, as she knew they could never tolerate any mistake from each other as co-wives.

She therefore, jumped inside the stream in search of the wooden spoon. singing and crying as she moved along.

Suddenly, she saw that she was sinking and no one came to her rescue. She found herself in a large palace and a bald headed man met her at the entrance. He asked her questions about her mission to this strange place.

The woman wept bitterly as she told the story of her relationship with her senior partner. The man then brought a marble, which he presented to the woman. she was asked to go back home and invite the senior wife before breaking the marble so they could both share whatever came from the marble, and thereafter  begin a new life.

   The woman was shown the way out of the stream and back to her home. She invited the senior wife who immediately flared up at her. She was not ready to listen to any story. The junior wife hit the marble on the wall. As soon as it broke into pieces, beautiful and costly items came up such as jewelries, clothes, money etc. She invited the senior wife to have her own share but she refused and shouted at her saying "Who is your mate? Please just mind your own business. I know how you came about this anyway."

The senior wife rushed out of the house and went the same stream. She jumped inside the water in search of her own fortune because she could not tolerate her junior wife under the same roof, not with new developement.

The senior wife found herself at the bald headed man's palace and was given the same treatment.
 When she got back home, she locked herself up in her room and broke the marble into pieces anxiously. There came out snakes, poisonous insect and scorpions and she was bitten to death.

It good to tolerate your partners, tho it may be hard.
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Saturday, December 9, 2017

Human Trafficking - Civic Education


Meaning of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is an illegal trade of human being for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or reproductive slavery, forced labour, etc. The major victims of human trafficking are women and children. When women are the persons being brought and sold, it is called women trafficking. When it is a forced labour, commercial sexual exploitation, etc.
Human trafficking should be rejected in its totality. Today, we see a number of human trafficking cases involving children and women. This should be discouraged.
       Many innocent girls and children became victims by means of threat, force, coercion and abduction or of the giving or receiving of payment to gain their consent for the purpose of exploitation.

Causes of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is caused by a number of factors, which we shall be analyzing below:
  1. Poverty : This is a situation of being poor. This situation or experience has led many people to fall victims of human trafficking. The traffickers promise them money and jobs. Upon arrival at their destinations, the victims are held against  their will and are forced to work or provide services to the traffickers. These services range from forced labour to commercialized sexual exploitation, etc.
  2. Unemployment : Due to the high level of unemployment in Nigeria, people would do anything to find greener pastures in other countries, especially Europe and America. So when these people are approached, they are easily deceived.
  3. Greed : this is a situation in which a person has a strong desire for more money, food, possessions, etc than he or she needs. These desires can lead such a person to be lured into commercialized sexual exploitation in the name of wanting to make money. Every individual should be contented with whatever he or she has. Contentment will help to resist any temptation that may come from traffickers.
  4. Low Self-esteem : Self esteem means self respect. It is a feeling of being satisfied with one's abilities. When one does not believe in himself or herself or does not respect his or her own abilities, such as an individual with low esteem can easily be lured away by sweet and vain promises of traffickers. It is important to respect ourselves and our abilities.
  5. Corruption: This is a dishonest, illegal or immoral behavior especially with someone with power or position of authority.
            Many people became victims of human trafficking as a result of someone exercising power, authority or position over them. Victims have no confidence to question the authority forcing them into this modern day slavery.
        Therefore, a strong appeal goes to people in power and positions of authority not to abuse their office, power and authority in order to subject a fellow human being to unpleasant experiences in situation.

Effects and Consequences of Human Trafficking 

The effects and consequences of human trafficking include thew following : 
  • Unwanted pregnancy : This occurs as a result of commercialized sexual exploitation.
  • HIV/AIDS: This occurs as a result of unprotected sexual exploitation of the victims.
  • Death: This occur as a result of illness or sickness which victims may experience without adequate health facilities.
  •  Stigmatization : This is a situation whereby a person's self worth is destroyed and he or she is treated harshly. Victims of human trafficking are stigmatized in the society.  
  • Violation of Fundamental Human Rights : Trafficking violates the fundamental rights of a person to life, liberty and the security of the person, and to be free from slavery of all forms.     

Efforts of Government and Individual To Stop Human Trafficking

Nigeria government has tried in full capacity to stop human trafficking in Nigeria. To end this, National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and other Related Matters (NAPTIP) was established. The establishment or creation of this agency is the federal government of Nigeria's response to addressing the scourge of human trafficking Nigeria.

Functions of NAPTIP:

  1. To adopt witness protection measures.
  2. Coordination of all laws on trafficking in person and related offences.
  3. Adoption of measures to increase the effectiveness of eradication of trafficking in person.
  4. To enhance effectiveness of law enforcement agents to suppress traffic in person.
  5. To establish proper communication channels, conduct research and work on improving international cooperation in the suppression of trafficking persons, by land, sea and air.
  6. To reinforce and supplement measures in bilateral and multilateral treaties and convections on trafficking in persons.
  7. To work in collaboration with other agencies or bodies that may ensure elimination and prevention of the root causes of the problem of trafficking in person.
  8. To strengthen and enhance effective legal means for international activities of traffic in persons.
  9. To strengthen cooperation between the Attorney-General of the Federation, Nigeria Police, Nigeria Immigration Services, Nigeria Customs Services, the Nigeria Prison services, welfare officials and all other agencies in the eradication of traffic in persons. 
  10. To take charge, supervise, control and coordinate the rehabilitation of trafficked persons.
  11. To investigate and prosecute traffickers.
Others ways through which government tried to eradicate trafficking in persons is enactment of law against human trafficking.                                                                  
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    Tuesday, December 5, 2017

    The Republican Constitution of 1963

    The Republican Constitution of 1963 was essentially the 1960 independence constitution rewritten with some minor modifications, and it came into operation on the 1st of October, 1963. It was in a bid to change the dominance of external affairs of Nigeria by Britain that a new constitution call the Republican Constitution of 1963 was proposed and adopted in 1963. With is constitution, the Queen ceased to be the Head of state and the executive function of the various units of the federation was no longer vested on her. She was also no longer a part of the legislative house of the federation.
      Under the new constitution, an elected president was substituted for the Queen as the Head of State. The judicial Service Commission was abolished and the president was empowered to appoint judges of the Supreme Court and those of the High Court of Lagos on the advice of the prime minister.
    Thus, the Supreme Court now became the final court of appeal in Nigeria. The power to declare any federal or regional law unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with any provision of the constitution (judicial review) was granted to the Federal Supreme Court.
       The emergency powers were also conferred on the federal government to declare state of emergency on any part of the country whenever there was war or serious crisis. Again, the constitution stipulated the procedure for the creation of new regions and the adjustment in the existing regional boundaries. It was in line with this procedure that the-Mid-western region was created in August, 1963.

    Features of the Republican Constitution of 1963

    1. The President of the Senate acted as president in the absence of the president of the federal republic of Nigeria.
    2. The membership of the senate was increased from 44 to 56.
    3. The fundamental human rights of citizens were entrenched in the constitution.
    4. The act that established the constitution was passed by the Nigerian parliament.
    5. The Queen of England ceased to be the constitutional Head of state. 
    6. The president was the Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces.
    7. The president was empowered to appoint, transfer, promote and discipline judges on the recommendation of  the Prime Minister.


    • The imperial basis of the Nigerian constitution was abolished.
    • The constitution was enacted by the Act of Nigerian Federal Parliament of 1963 which repealed the Nigerian Independence Act of 1960.
    • It made the supreme court the highest court of appeal in Nigeria.


    • It placed Nigeria under strong influenced of Britain, by allowing it to be a member of British Commonwealth.
    • The constitution created difficulties in creating new states, thereby making one of the regions to be larger than the three (3) others put together.

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    Sunday, December 3, 2017

    Relationships Of Organisms In An Ecosystem

    An ecosystem is a basic functioning unit of nation. It is made up of living organisms and their non-living environment. Both components, not only interact among themselves, but are also linked by a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes. We shall now study relationships of organisms in an ecosystem which result in the ecosystem being a functioning unit.

    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
    The basic component of an ecosystem is made up of all the living organisms in it. These organisms are divided into two main groups according to the way they feed; autotrophs and heterotrophs.


    Autotrophs are organisms that are able to use sunlight or chemical energy to manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances.
       Autotrophs extract inorganic nutrients and chemical energy from their non-living environment, that is from the abiotic  component of the ecosystem. Sunlight, the main energy source used by autotrophs, is obtained from the sun which is outside the ecosystem. By being able to use sunlight, these autootrophs forms a direct link between abiotic and biotic components of an ecoosystem. Since autotrophs are the only oorganisms that can produce food in an ecosystem, they are also known as primary food producers.
            Autotrophs use some food they produce for their activities and building their body tissues (growth). The rest is stored in various parts of their bodies.
           Autotrophs include all green plants, photosynthetic protists and some bacteria. In a terrestrial ecosystem, the main food producers are green plants especially flowering plants such as maize, rice, yam and pawpaw. In an aquatic ecosystem, however, the main food producers are protists like diatoms and algae like spirogyra, often referred to as the phytoplankton. 


    Heterotrophs cannot manufacture food. They feed on ready-made food which comes from the tissues of organisms in their environment, that is from biotic component of the ecosystem. This food is produced either directly or indirectly by autotrophs. Thus all heterotrophs depend ultimately on autotrophs for food.
       Heterotrophs use the nutrients and chemical energy stored in the food they feed on for their activities and building up their body tissues (growth). Excess nutrients and energy are often stored in various parts of their bodies.
    Heterotrophs include all animals, carnivorous plants, fungi, and most protists and bacteria. In an ecosystem, heterotrophs maybe consumers or decomposers. Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on other organisms. They include
    • all holozoic organisms such as herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers; and
    • parasites.
    Some examples of consumers in a terrestrial ecosystem are caterpillars, cows, dogs, lions, toads, hawks and vipers. The consumers in an aquatic habitat include cope pods, water fleas, tadpoles, larvae of insects and fishes.

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    Thursday, November 30, 2017

    Rewards To Factors of Production

    In the production of goods and services, firms combine factors of production in various proportions. The baker, for instance, needs flour, baking powder, sugar, baking equipment, such as an oven and other ingredients for baking. If he operates on commercial scale, he will need to employ workers.
       Payments are made to secure these factors. We have classified factors of production into four main headings: namely, land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship. The rewards to factors of production are:

    1. rents paid to owners for the use of their lands,
    2. wages paid to workers for the use of their services.
    3. profits earned by entrepreneurs. In other words, rents, wages, interests and profits are rewards to the owners of production and
    4. interests received by owners of capitals
    Rents are classified into
    • Commercial rent
    • economic rent
    • quasi-rent

    Commercial Rent

    Commercial rent is defined as payment made for the use of  property, such as buildings and machinery. In other words, it is a reward for investment in property.

    Economic Rent

    This describe as any payment made to a factor of production over and above what is necessary to keep it operative or functional.  It is a surplus payment made to any factor of production - land, labour, capital or enterprise. The economic rent earned by a factor is the difference between its earnings and its opportunity cost.
    That is to say, economic rent refers to the difference between the payment made to a factor of production and the minimum it would accept in its next paid employment.
        For example the minimum wage a medical officer will accept for his next employment is #300 but he is receiving #900 presently, his economic rent is #600 (that is #900-#300). If he were given #300, he would reject any sum less than #300. The extra #600 he makes represents his transfer earning or opportunity cost. It is what he will accept for his next employment if he were forced to.


    Quasi-rent is payment made to any factor that is temporarily fixed in supply. It is a temporary surplus payment that is made to a factor, Such payment is expected to disappear when the supply condition of that factor improves.
        Quasi-rent disappears in the long run when adjustments are made to improve the supply and demand situation . The rents charged by landlords in Nigeria are often in the forms of quasi-rent and commercial rent.

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    Wednesday, November 29, 2017



    Suffixes are added to the end of the word. Suffixes frequently alter the word-class of the base. For example, the adjective kind is changed to abstract noun when the suffix - ness is added to the adjective - kind; to form - kindness.

    Noun suffixes:

    Occupational (Noun to noun)
    • -ster (person's identity) as in gangster, superstar
    • -eer (an occupation/activity) as in engineer, pensioneer
    • -er (varied meanings) as in teenager, Londoner
    • -let as in booklet, piglet
    • -ette as in kitchenette, statuette, flannette,usherette
    • -ess as in waitress, hostess
    -y, ie as in daddy, auntie    
    Noun/adjectives to noun/adjectives
    • -(i)-ite as in Israelite, socialite
    • -an as in Indonesian, republican
    • -ese as in Chinese
    • -ist as in socialist, violinist 
    • -ism as in idealism, communism  
    Verb to noun
    • -er, or as in driver, processor
    • -ant inhabitant, disinfectant
    • -ee as in employee, testee
    • -ation as in exploration, organisation     
    • -ment as in amazement, fulfillment
    • -al as in refusal, dismissal
    • -age as in drainage
     Adjective to noun
    • -ness as in happiness, goodness
    • -ity as in sanity, humility
    Verb to noun/adjective/verb
    • -ify as in simplify
    • -ize as in popularize,advertize
    • -en as in deafen, sadden
    Noun to adjectives
    • -ful as in useful, helpful
    • -less as in childless, harmless
    • -ly as in cowardly, outwardly
    • -like  as in childlike, christlike
    • -y  as in creamy, hairy
    • ish as in Turkish, foolish, rubbish
    • -ian as in Darwinian, Christian
    Other suffix common in borrowed and neo-classical words
    • -al as in criminal
    • -ial as in editorial
    • -ical as in musical
    • - ic as in heroic, historic
    • -ive as in attractive, affirmative, sensitive
    Other adjectives suffix added to form v-noun. For example readable, bearable, etc.

    Adverb suffix
    • -ly  as in happily, strangely, brightly
    • -ward as in backward, forward
    • -wise (in the manner of/as far as/is concerned) as in crabwise, otherwise, weather-wise.
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      Monday, November 27, 2017

      The Resurrection, Appearance And Ascension of Jesus

      The study of the Resurrection, Appearance And Ascension of Jesus is very important because the bible chapter gave an account of it, we are going to study them one after the other.
      Matthew 28:1-8; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-11 these bible verse gave an account of it.


      According to Matthew, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the sepulcher. There was a great earthquake for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven and rolled back the stone from the door and sat upon it.
        The angel told the women not to fear and that he knew they were looking for Jesus. The angel told them that Jesus had risen. The angel commanded them to go quickly to tell the disciples that Christ has risen from the dead and that he has gone before them to Galilee. They quickly went to tell the disciples.

      Mark recorded that Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome had brought sweet spices to anoint Jesus' body. They came to the sepulcher early in the morning on the first day of the week. They questioned themselves who roll away the stone from the door of the sepulcher. When they got there,they saw that the stone had been rolled away. When they entered the sepulcher, they saw a young man,sitting on the right side clothed in long white garment and they were afraid. The young man told them not to be afraid and that Jesus had risen. The young man instructed them to tell his disciples and Peter that Jesus had gone to Galilee.

      Luke recorded that the women entered the tomb and could not see the body of Jesus but they saw two men standing by them in white shinning garment. The men questioned the women "Why seek ye living among the dead"? 
      They reminded them of Jesus said, "The son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified and the third day rise again". The women returned to tell the eleven disciples their experience.
         Those are the account Matthew Mark and Luke gave about the resurrection, appearance and ascension of Jesus.


      Matthew 28:9-20; Luke 24:13-49
        It was the same day that Jesus had risen from the dead and had spoken to Mary Magdalene near the tomb that two disciples were going home from Jerusalem to the village of  Emmanus. One of the disciples was Cleopas. As they walked along they were discussing sadly the death of Jesus, as they walked Jesus himself came up to them, but they could not know him. He asked them what they were talking about and why they were so sad. Cleopas told him all that happened to Jesus and how they had heard the amazing news that he was alive again. Then Jesus began to talk about himself and how all these things had happen for they were the will of God.
            Soon they came to Emmaus. It was nearly evening and the two disciples asked Jesus to stay the night with them. As they sat down to eat Jesus took some bread, blessed it and broke it and gave it to the disciples. At once they knew who he was, but Jesus vanished from their sight.
      The two disciples set off again for the city of Jerusalem to tell the other disciples the great news. They found eleven with some others in the upper room. With joy they told them all that has happened on the road to Emmaus, and how they spoke, Jesus stood in the room. Many of them were afraid because they thought that he was a spirit. but when he showed them his wounds in his hands and feet, they knew who he was.
      Jesus was to appear to his disciples many times before he left them to ascend into Heaven. Forty days were to pass before his ascension and these days are often called "THE GREAT FORTY DAYS"
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      Friday, November 17, 2017

      Functions of Political Parties

      The last time we learnt about How political parties compete for power just in case you miss the post here's the link to the post HOW POLITICAL PARTIES COMPETE FOR POWER today we are here to learn about functions of political parties.

                            Functions of Political Parties

      1. Interest Aggregation : Political Parties serve as avenues to synthesise the views and opinions of the people on national issues to produce a common aspiration and public policy.
      2. Political Articulation: Political parties as a matter of importance articulate the interest of the people. This forms the foundation upon which the party will base their electioneering campaigns.
      3. Leadership/Personnel Recruitment : Political parties brings together experts that will run the affairs of government.
      4. Mobilization : They also serve as avenues to mobilize the electorate to participate in the political system through rallies and public enlightenment.
      5. Political parties check the excesses of the government/power and serve as watchdog to avoid bad ruler ship.
      6. Political parties unify the people. It is one major avenue through which people come together from different cultural and cultural and religious backgrounds for a common purpose.

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      Thursday, November 2, 2017

      Importance of Employment in Alleviating Poverty

      Employment is an activity in which one engages in or is employed which allows one to afford the basic things of life examples are shelter, good health services, education, etc. It can also be defined as an occupation by which a person earns a living.
      people can either be employed by the government, private individuals or be self-employed. Employment is important alleviating poverty as this determines the state of the economy of a nation and its tendency to develop among the comity of nations.
             The importance of employment in alleviating the poverty level of a country are as follows;
      1. ACQUISITION OF SKILLS ; This is one of the importance of employment in alleviating poverty. Skills is the ability to do something well, gained through training or experience. Employment affords individuals the opportunity to learn various skills like hairdressing, tailoring, carpentry, catering, etc. which will enable them become self-reliant and self-positive. This in turn will help reduce if not completely alleviate poverty.
      2. CREATION OF INDUSTRY ; The increase in the level of employment will bring about a direct increase in the number of industries. This will lead to foreign investment and creation of more industries, thus enhancing development.
      3. NATIONAL IDENTITY ; When the people of a society are gainfully employed, they are able to demonstrate their love for the government, support for government programes and political apathy will be reduced. This in turn will contribute to the wealth of a nation and people will be interested in working hard for the progress of their nation.
      4. EQUAL RIGHT FOR BOTH SEXES IN THE WORK PLACE ; Where there is equality in the remuneration of workers of both sexes, then the level of poverty amongst a particular sex, especially the women, will be reduced.
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      Events that proved MALTHUS wrong

      Malthus in his first essay titled  " Essay on population 1798 " stated that, if  human being are not checked in their natural form, that human population will grow at a geometrical progression while food production increases at arithmetical progression.

      now lets look at the event that proves him wrong

      1. The discoveries of new world that provided new settlement.
      2. The industrial revolution that occured in Europe led to the production of endless articles for people consumption.
      3. medical improvement helped ton prolong human lives and render positive checks of population untenable.
      4. Agrarian revolution provided more food to all parts of Europe including the new world.
      5. Strict adherence to the views of THOMAS MALTHUS led to under-population in many countries of the world.
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      Sunday, October 29, 2017

      Metaphors, idioms and proverbs

      Exercise 1
      Choose three of the following words, and show how each can be used as a metaphor by including it in a sentence of your own composition :
      Veil, harvest, poison, path, smile


      Veil - She tried to veil her intention from us by chatting about other matters.

      Harvest - He had made so many enemies that, when he asked for help, he could reap only a harvest of hate.

      Poison - He  appeared very friendly, but there was a poison in his smile.

      Path - His reckless generosity was leading him on the path to poverty.

      Smile - The rising moon darted a pale smile of encouragement upon him.

      Exercise 2
      Express the meaning of four of the following proverbs in your own words:

      1. The pen is mightier than the sword. 
      2. Still water run deep. 
      3. A little learning is dangerous thing. 
      4. Procrastination is the thief of time. 
      5. It never rains but it pours. 
      6. The burnt child shuns the fire. 

      1. More can be archived by writing books than fighting wars. 
      2. He who says little, says much. 
      3. It is easy to come to wrong conclusion if we think ourselves wise when we are in fact ignorant. 
      4. If you put off an unpleasant job for too long, you will suddenly find you are too late to do it. 
      5. Troubles never comes singly. 
      6. Experience prevents us from making the same mistake. 

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      Wednesday, October 25, 2017

      Ways Of Fighting Political Apathy

      What Is The Meaning of Political Apathy
      Apathy simply means a feeling of not having any interest in or enthusiasm about anything. It also means the feeling of not willing to make any effort to change things. While Political apathy means a feeling of having no interest and enthusiasm about politics.
             The belief of people like this is that politics is a dirty game, and whatever is done there is not their business because a certain set of people are meant for the task, and only those who are atheist or freelance can join politics. Political apathy involves the attitude of indifference of citizens to Democratic processes.  It shows the negative behavioral disposition of people towards the government of their country vis-à-vis every other political activity. Political apathy, if left uncontrolled, can bring about stagnation to the development of a nation.

      What are the Causes of Political Apathy
      There are so many factors that can cause the indifference of the citizens to the democratic processes.

      1. Unfulfilled Political Promises : people become apolitical to the system because of the way politicians cajole them to vote for them with juicy promises which they never fulfill. 
      2. Bad Governance : the inability of the political leaders to provide amenities and other measures to improve the welfare of the people is another reason for political apathy. 
      3. Political violence : The attitude of some politicians who see politics as a do or die affair which always result to violence, assassinations and assault on their political opponents always discourage citizens from participating in politics. 
      4. Electoral Malpractices : Various electoral malpractices which include multiple voting, rigging, declaration of wrong candidate as winner and the inability of the government to punish electoral offenders who disrupt elections are all reasons that discourage the people from participation in politics. 
      5. Party ideologies : People become apolitical when they observe that the political parties existing or ruling at a particular time do not have any strong ideology. 
      Ways of Fighting Political Apathy
      The central point of democracy is the participation of the citizens in the democratic process. The spirit of democracy is " people centered " as majority rule is often listed as a major characteristic of democracy.
            However, when people in a political system become indifference to the Democratic process and the government, there can be stagnation to the development of the nation. If political apathy is left uncontrolled, there can be disorder, violence and revolution which could have been averted and resolved by people's participation and total involvement in political process.
       Thus, the various way of fighting political apathy are as follows:

      (I) Political Awareness: People should strive to know what is going on in their political system. They should understand and have current awareness of various developments and activities of government in their country. The teaching of Civic Education in schools is one of the ways to make students understand and have the awareness of democratic system. This measure will curb political apathy in the society. Knowledge, it is said, is power.

      (II) Understanding and Knowing Political Rights: Citizens, apart from understanding the democratic system, should be aware of their rights and duties in the democratic system and perform their duties as expected.

      (III) Performing Civic Duties: Another major way to curb political indifference of the citizens towards political activities is to encourage and make them perform their political duties and obligations to their nation and the government. They should respect and obey the law; serve their father land and pay their taxes regularly for government to provide basic amenities.

      (IV) Participation in Elections: The best way to fight political apathy is the participation of citizens in elections. Citizens should be ready to vote and defend their votes to instill their will on the system. The people's wish cannot be instituted if they do not defend and stand by it.

      (V) Joining Popular Organizations: Political apathy can also be cured by encouraging citizens to join popular political and civil society groups or associations. Through these organizations they can make their opinions known and collectively fight and also protect the rule of law which is the foundation of civilized society.

      (Vi) Defending Rights: Citizens should be ready to defend to defend their rights in the face of opposition or hindrance. It is one thing to be aware of the rights, but it is another to be able to defend it. Citizens should be ready to defend their rights against arbitrary arrests, secret trials, intimidation, cruel or degrading treatment or punishment and delay in legal adjudication among other infringement on their rights.

      (Vii) Poverty Reduction/Eradication: People who are poor do not have the time or interest in politics. All they do is toil from dusk to dawn in search of basic necessities example food, clothing and shelter. Consequently, if poverty is reduced or completely eradicated in the society, more people will find time for politics.

      Political apathy is a virus which if left uncontrolled cam bring about stagnation to the development of the nation. It can also lead to break down of law and order and violence. It is important for citizens to know that political problems cannot be curbed by political apathy. If government is left in the hands of mediocre, it is the citizens who will suffer because of the spill over effect of their apathy which have given the idle ones the opportunity to rule.
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      Monday, October 23, 2017

      Marketing Boards

      Definition of Marketing board : Produce Marketing boards are bodies set up by the various West African Government and given the sole right to buy and sell agricultural produce ( especially those meant for export ).
          In Nigeria, we have the Cocoa, Palm produce, Groundnut etc Marketing Boards throughout the country. The same thing is applicable to all other West African Countries.
      Let's look at the aims of Marketing boards. 

                     AIMS OF THE MARKETING BOARDS
      1. To stabilize the prices of commodities they control. 
      2. To buy internally and sell abroad. 
      3. To transport and ship produce within and outside the country. 
      4. To improve production methods. 
      5. Conduct research into approved seedlings, methods of production and control of pest.  
      Interesting to know the aims but everything have an advantage and disadvantage so below are the advantages of marketing boards.

      1. Reduction in exploitation of producers. 
      2. Increased supply of infrastructural facilities. 
      3. Greater price stability and food productions. 
      4. Creation of an effective market information service. 
      Below are the disadvantage or problems of marketing boards.

      • Getting information to illiterate farmers. 
      • Political interference in the activities of the Marketing Boards. 
      • In accessibility to producing areas such as the swampy and hinter lands. 
      • The problem of fixing a reasonable price for a particular cropping season. 
      • Lack of skilled personnel. 
      • The scattered nature of the growing areas. 
      • Activities of produce smugglers along the borders. 
      • The problem of what to do with surplus produce. 
      Indeed developing countries needs Marketing boards to grow rapidly in their economy, now that you have learnt about marketing boards don't keep the wisdom alone you can share to others and also invite others and we do appreciate your comments. 
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      Saturday, October 21, 2017

      The National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA)

      The National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA), was formed by the 4 British West African countries, namely the Gambia, Sierra-leone, Gold Coast ( now Ghana) and Nigeria in 1917 in gold Coast under the leadership of Caseley Hayford. It had its headquarters in Gold Coast and branches in all other three member countries. The main aim of the congress was to unite the 4 British West African countries in their demand for independence.
          At the meeting of the congress that took place in Accra, Ghana in 1920,  the members unanimously resolved to send a powerful delegation to London to present to the Secretary of State for the colonies the demands of the congress. The delegation sent to London demanded for the following :

      1. The establishment of a legislative council in each territory, half of which should be elected and the other half to be nominated. 
      2. The establishment of house of Assembly comprising the members of the legislative Council and 6 other financial representatives elected by the people to control revenue and expenditure. 
      3. The appointment of Africans to Judicial offices. 
      4. The establishment of a West African University.
            However, their demands were not granted. The governors of Nigeria and Gold Coast criticized the delegates and accused them of representing nobody except themselves. They were also accused of being politically ambitious and ignorant of the happenings in their home countries. However, various pressures later compelled Sir Hugh Clifford to dissolve the Nigerian Council and replace it with a new legislative and executive Council.
      Read more

      Monday, October 16, 2017

      Making Decisions

      SOLOMON'S WISDOM: 1Kg 3:3-28; 4:29-34; 5:1-12; 8:1-53
         Solomon, son of David, succeeded his father. He loved the Lord and walked in the statutes of his father. He went to Gibeon to offer sacrifices. While he was there, God appeared to him in a dream. God asked him to request for any particular gift from him. Solomon requested from God an understanding mind to enable him judge and govern the people of Israel wisely.
         Note this quotation: "Gibe thy servant therefore an understanding mind to govern the people that I may discern between good and evil".
      God gave Solomon wisdom and richness and honour.
            Solomon's wisdom was put to test when two harlots quarreled over the ownership of a surviving child. In the account, Solomon ordered the living child to be sane into two equal parts and each part to be given to the two women who claimed ownership of the living child.
       The woman who was the real mother of the living child preferred to preserve the life of the child even if the child was given to the false claimant. The other woman was very happy over Solomon's decision. Solomon then judge rightly that the child belonged to the mother who was anxious to preserve the child's life. The people hailed Solomon because the wisdom of God was in him.

      Solomon was believed to have said about 3,000 proverbs. He built a temple and the Ark of the covenant was brought to the inner sanctuary. 
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      Tuesday, October 10, 2017

      Cooperative society - Economics

      A co-operative Society is a business organisation in which a group of individuals who have common interest mutually agree to come together to establish in order to promote their exotic activities like production, distribution or marketing of goods and services and provision of other welfare benefits to their members.

      1. They are owned by from two persons to any number.

      2. Membership is open to those who fulfill certain conditions.

      3.  They are not necessarily formed to make profits.

      4. They apply the principles of democracy.

      5. Profits if made are shared on the basis of patronage.

      6. They hold meetings at regular intervals.


      • Consumers co-operative society: As the name indicates, consumers pool their resources together in order to buy goods in bulk from manufacturers. 
      • Producers Co-operative Society: This is the association of producers of similar products who have come together in order to promote the sale and production of their products. 
      Credit And Thrift Co-operative Society: In this society, members are encouraged to save their money together, which all or part of it maybe lent to any member that is in need.

      1. Encouragement of savings. 
      2. They prevent price fluctuation. 
      3. They are Democratic in nature. 
      4. Results in low prices of goods. 
      5. Prevention of hoarding. 
      6. Increase in standard of living. 
      7. They fight; inflation and deflation. 
      8. They avoid cheating. 
      9. Savings in advertising cost. 
      10. Education of their members. 
      11. Encouragement of hand work. 
      12. They encourage economic development. 
      They encourage inter-personal relationship.


      1. High embezzlement rate. 
      2. Insufficient capital. 
      3. Weak management. 
      4. Problem of politics
      5. Illiteracy. 
      6. Limited expansion. 
      7. Denial of individual initiatives. 
      8. Lack of discipline. 
      9. Evasion of tax. 
      Indiscriminate of enrollment of members.

      Now you have know how cooperative societies function, it will be nice if you drop comment and also invite your friends over to learn with you. 
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      Saturday, October 7, 2017

      Ecological Succession biology

      This is a process by which ecosystem change over time. It is a product of complex interactions of biotic and a biotic factors. There is a gradual and continuous replacement of a dominant species until a relatively complex and stable ecosystem develops. The developmental stages are known as ere or several stages and final steady stage as a climax.

                                 STAGES OF SUCCESSION

      Primary Succession
      The first set of organisms to inhabit a bare plot of land or a newly form pool, pond or lake.  They are the pioneer colonizers of such habitats.

      Secondary Succession
      The more complex organisms that follow the pioneer colonizers after nutrients have been made available for them by the earlier succession. The producers first arrives and prepare a favorable condition of existence for the consumers to survive.


      1. Those species that are important in the pioneer stage are not likely to be important at climax. 
      2. Biomas and the standing crop of organic matter decrease with succession. 
      3. The diversity of species increases with succession. There is increase in net community production and a corresponding increase in community respiration during succession. 
      Natural selection pressure on species in the community shifts dramatically as ecological development proceeds towards steady state.

      Credit to lectportal team for research on this
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      Friday, October 6, 2017

      Control of Vectors

      A vector in biology is an animal which transmit a disease causing organism from one organism to another

      Ways of Controlling Vectors Are

      A. Mosquito : Draining of swamps to eliminate. Ate breeding ground for mosquito.

      ii. Cutting bushes around house to reduce hiding places for adult mosquito.

      iii. Sleeping in room protected by mosquito net to prevent bites.

      iv. Using insect repellent on the body to eliminate mosquito bites.

      V. Spraying oil on stagnant water to prevent larva stage from breathing or introduction of fishes or tadpole

      i. Pit toilet must be converted always and kept clean.

      ii. Spraying of insecticides to kill adult housefly in the compound.

      iii. Dustbins should be covered properly.

      IV. There should be adequate sanitation for proper sewage disposal.

      v. To prevent them from breeding no dirty dump places and decomposing matter should be allowed around homes.
         Some  vectors such as ticks, mites and bedbugs can be controlled by good personal hygiene, clean environment and use of insecticides. 

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      Ozigolo by Peddle E. Okao

                         ACT ONE SCENE ONE
      (In front of his village house, Eduwu receives a visitor called Idahosa)

      Eduwu: Idahosa, please have your seat and let me offer you Kola nuts. (Idahosa takes his seat while Eduwu calls out to Ozigolo to fetch some kola nuts)

      Idahosa: Eduwu, you have done what most men cannot do in this village. Since your wife Osarobo died twenty years ago, you refused to remarry.

      Eduwu: Why should I remarry? Oh, so that the new wife can maltreat my son Ozigolo.

      Idahosa: But you have really tried playing the roles of father and mother for Ozigolo for twenty years. Can you continue to do this?

      Eduwu: I thank God and our ancestors for giving me the will to pass through those hard times. After all, what is better than the two children my late wife, Osarobo, gave me? Any way, I thank God for making the job easy for me through my younger sister who took the girl to the city for up bringing.
      (Ozigolo brings in the Kola nuts and seats by the father on the ground). 

      Idahosa: (Breaks the kola after a short prayer)
      But tell me, who can ever forget your lovely daughter Omosede in this village? But we believe that it pleased God and the ancestors to deny her of motherly love. That girl suffered.

      Eduwu: Idahosa, please don't remind me of those pains and terrible times. I am sure something brought you to my house this morning. May I know what I can do for you?

      Idahosa: E-du-wu! As brisk in speech as the great farmer that you are.  Well, what else would bring me to your house this morning? My wife told me you sustained an injury at the farm yesterday. I have come to express my sympathy. But Eduwu, exactly how did it happen?

      Eduwu: I thank you for coming. Your sympathy is well received. Since you heard, it is only now you decided to come! Even your wife that informed you is yet to come here.  It is a shame that you, Idahosa, who is known to be my best friend in this village, could sleep throughout the night when you heard what happened to me. Well such is life!

      Idahosa: You quarrel too much Eduwu. At least you can see for yourself that I am not particularly well myself. I am sorry.

      Eduwu: it okay! I did not know that you were not fine. You know I don't hide my feelings. I hope you are better now?

      Idahosa: it's not my own we are talking about now. Eduwu how did you sustain this injury?

      Eduwu: (Takes a deep breath) well, you know how lazy my son Ozigolo is? Can you imagine a boy of his age loosing grip of his cutlass in the farm?

      Idahosa: Um-m-m! You mean Ozigolo?

      Eduwu: Yes, we were working in the farm when it happened. But it was a mistake.

      Idahosa: When will you stop defending this boy? Your son cut you with a cutlass and you call it a mistake?

      Eduwu: Idahosa! Leave my son alone. What do you want me to do? Eh? Okay! My son cut me with a cutlass, so I should kill him, will you give me your son to become mine?

      Idahosa: Anyhow! You are right. Is it not only a cut? The pain is not usually much it does not last for so long?

      Eduwu: (Getting Angry) But why do you always allow your lazy mind to control your busy mouth? Is there anything more painful than a deep cut like this from a cutlass?

      Idahosa: Eduwu! There is.

      Eduwu: And what could that be?

      Idahosa: Nothing could be as painful as a "lie"

      Eduwu: A lie?

      Idahosa: Yes a "lie".  If you are lied against, it may never heal like a cut from a cutlass.

      Eduwu: I know that a lie hurts, but a cut like this one? Eh! A cut is more painful!

      Idahosa: No! A lie is!

      Eduwu: I say a cut!

      Idahosa: A lie

      Eduwu: Ha-ha! I am telling you a cut! At least I have one on me!

      Idahosa: I know. But it's not comparable to a lie!
      (Ozigolo watches curiously as the two friends argue)

                                     DRAW CURTAIN

      To be continued on this same post, just subscribe to us through our email so you won't miss an update of this intriguing novel. 
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      Tuesday, October 3, 2017

      International Organization And Institutions

      1. EEC - It means the European Economic Community, popularly known as the European Common Market.  It has nine (9) members.  And these includes : Britain,  Italy, Luxemburg, Netherland, France, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark and Western Germany.
       The aim of the organization is to eliminate all the barriers to free trade.  In other words, members can trade freely, and movement from one member country to another is strictly under control.
           The European Economic Community hopes to use common currency in the near future.

      2. ECOWAS - This means Economic Community of West African States. It was established on the 26th of May, 1975. It is made up of 15 member nations, with its headquarters in Lagos ( Nigeria ). The countries include : Nigeria, Ghana, Benin Republic, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'voire, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso, Niger, Togo, Liberia and Mali.
       It is ran by a council of ministers and an executive secretary. The aims include :
      (a) Encouraging free trade among member country.
      (b) Adoption of a protocol on non-aggression.
      (c) Free movement of people, goods and services : under this arrangement citizens of member states can reside in any ECOWAS country for 90 days without a visa.
      (d) Carrying out common marketing research projects.
      (e) Establishing common tariff and commercial policies.
      (f) They hope to adopt a community telecommunication programme.

      As we all know in everything good there must be a bad side and this is not left out, below are ECOWAS problems;

      1. Language barrier. 
      2. Currency : different currencies are used throughout ECOWAS states. 
      3. Former colonial ties are still predominant among member countries. 
      4. Failure to meet financial obligations. 
      5. The complete economic dependence on colonial masters. 
      6. Frequent border closures e.g Nigeria and Benin, Togo and Ghana e.t.c. 
      Ideological differences I.e political, economics and socio-cultural ideas among member states.

      3. IMF - IMF means International Monetary Fund.  It was established at the Breton Wood Conference in 1944.  It is made up of 44 Allied nations.  It has its headquarters in New York.
               IMF Aim is as follows;
      To determine the realistic exchange rates of currency all over the world.

      It acts as a central banking system for the world.

      BENEFITS :

      • Common fund : All member countries contribute to the common fund based on the size of their national economies. 
      • The right to borrow from fund : All members have the right to call upon the fund for whatever currencies they needed upto a total of 25% of their quotas in any one year. 
      • Changes of parity : Because of the unrealistic post-war trading conditions, provision was made for devaluation or re-valuation of any member's currency to a certain percentage. 
      • Scarce currencies : The fund could declare a country's currency as scarce if that country's stock of currency falls below 75% due to excessive demand such currency is to be rationalized out to all member countries. 
      • The right to deactivate against some exports : in order to restore balance of payments crisis by debtor countries, a clause was introduced which gave the debtor persistent creditor.  The funds official has declared its currency to be scarce. 

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      Monday, September 11, 2017

      Agricultural Classification of Plants

      In Agricultural practice plants are classified according to their uses as follows :

      Cereal Plant :These are plants rich in carbohydrate they contain low level of protein. Their fruits are one seed small low level of protein.  Their fruits are one seed and small. They are known as grains examples are maize, rice, wheat, barley,  oath, rye and millet.

      2.  Legumes or Pulses : Plants whose seeds are rich in protein, seed are contained fruits called pod. Fruits are many seeded, examples are bean, ground nut, cow pea,  pigeon pea, soya bean, sword bean, Lima bean etc.

      3.  Oil Crops : These are crops that store fats in their seeds is fruits that can yield oil if processed.  The oil can be eaten or used in soap making or as fuel or lubricant in industries. Examples are oil palm tree, coconut, melon, ground nut, castor oil etc.

      4.  Root and Tuber Plant : Plants without roots are modified as storage organs,  store a lot of carbohydrates food.  Root and tuber are underground storage organs of plants. Root crop is cassava. Tuber crops include : yam, potatoes only tubers can be use to propagate the crop.

      5.  Fibre Crops :  These crops are grown for their fires. Fires are enough elongated tapering cells which can be use for making ropes, mats and nets. Examples are urena labota, sissal hemp ( Agave ) etc.

      6.  Sugar Crops :  These are crops that store their carbohydrate reserves in the form of complex sugar ( Sucrose ). Examples are sugar cane and beet.

      7.  Stimulants and Beverage Crops :  These plants produce seeds that processed into beverages which are used as stimulants examples are cocoa, coffee, tea, tobacco etc.

      8.  Latex Crops :  These are plants that have milky exudate in their bark and leaves 🍂.  The latex is tapped, coagulated and used for making rubber examples rubber trees, Allamader, Thevetia, Peruvians, jatropha,  cactus.  etc.

      9.  Ornamental Plants :  The plants have brightly coloured leaves or flowers or produced sweet smelling nectar. They are grown to beautify the dwelling place example Croton, Hibiscus 🌺, Allamander, Acalypha etc.

      Classification based on Life Span
      Flowering plants can be classified into three (3) groups on the basis of their life span. The group are annuals, biennials and perennial. We shall explain them according to their format which they appear.

      These are crops which complete their life span in one year. Within the one year they grow and develop their vegetative bodies and carry out reproduction and die off. Examples include the maize, yam, ground nut, okro etc.

      These are crops that complete their life span in two years of growth. In the first year they developed their vegetative structure and in the second year they develop flowers and carry out reproduction, after which they die. Examples are carrot, cocoyam.

      The plants in this group complete their life span in more than two years. They live for many years and they reproduce from year to year until they become old and die. Examples are Oil palm tree, Mango, orange etc.
      Haven't explained all, it'll be interesting to know their cell division

      One of the facts of cell theory states that no new cell are made, additional cells are made from the already existing one through cell division. The already existing one cell divides into two, the two divide into four and the four into eight and so on.
        Thus is how the unicellular ones achieve growth and increase in size. Two types of cell division are known. They are mitosis and meiosis. Both divisions occur in four phase of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. However these four phases are repeated a second time in meiosis. The first division us reduction division in which the chromosome number (2n) is reduced to two haploid cells so that four haploid cells are formed from one diploid cell. In all cell division the nucleus or nuclear materials divide first ( karyokinesis) followed by the division of the cytoplasm ( cytokinesis ).

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      Thursday, August 31, 2017

      Common mistakes in English



      This “word” is a favourite of many Nigerians, but, sadly, it simply does not exist. You won’t find it any reputable dictionary. The correct thing to say when “installmentally” comes to your mind is in _"instalments"_ or _"by instalments"_.
      *2. PLUMBY
      Nigerians use _“plumpy”_ when they want to say that someone is chubby or slightly fat. The correct expression is _plump_.

      3. DISVIRGIN
      This particular “word” is used severally on a daily basis, especially by Nigerian men when they intend saying that a woman has lost her virginity to a guy. The correct word to use, however, is _"deflower"_, because “disvirgin” is not a word.

      This is a favourite of Nigerian politicians and political analysts alike. They use it when they want to say that a politician has dumped his political party for another party, usually a rival party. The right terms to use when describing this scenario are _"party switching"_, _"defection"_ and _"crossing the floor"_ and not “cross-carpeting” or “crosscarpeting.”

      5. GO-SLOW
      The word go-slow exists, but not in the way Nigerians use it. A “go-slow,” in the peculiarly Nigerian context, is a situation in which road traffic is very sluggish due to vehicle queues. However, go-slow in the English language actually means _"an industrial tactic used by employees whereby they intentionally reduce activity, productivity and efficiency in order to press home some demands"_. When this happens, you say that work in the office, factory or organization is at a go-slow. The correct terms to use when road traffic is very sluggish due to vehicle queues are _"traffic jam"_, _"traffic congestion"_, _"gridlock"_, and (less technically) _"hold-up"_, not “go-slow.”

      6. CUNNY
      “Cunny” is not found in authoritative dictionaries, but it can be found in some slang dictionaries. Over there, it is a slang used to refer to a woman’s private part. The correct term to use is _"cunning"_ (which is used to describe someone that is being deceitful or crafty) and not “cunny.”

      There is nothing like “opportuned” anywhere in the English language, but that has not stopped its blatant use by all and sundry in Nigeria, including journalists and writers. The correct word is _"opportune"_. The word opportune is an adjective; therefore it has no past tense. An adjective has no past tense. However, some verbs can function as adjectives or adverbs in a sentence. These verbs are called participles and they do have past tenses. They are not pure adjectives. Examples of participles are fattened, amused, disgusted, mystified, overwhelmed, upset and bored. Be that as it may, opportune is a pure adjective and not a participle, therefore it has no past tense. Opportune means appropriate or well-timed.

      8. ALRIGHT
      “Alright” is a misspelling of the term _"all right"_. All right is used when you want to say that something is adequate, acceptable, agreeable or suitable. To hardcore English language linguists, “alright” is not a word. However, its usage is gaining traction and it’s increasingly becoming acceptable. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary – which is considered the gold standard among American English speakers – has recently drawn a lot of criticisms for its permissiveness when it began indexing some otherwise colloquial and street language terms, including “alright.” Most linguists disagree with the gradual acceptance of “alright” as a word by the public and even the media, while those in the minority are “alright” with it. 😁

      “Wake-keeping” exists only in the imagination of a few English speakers. As a matter of fact, there is no such thing as “wake-keeping.” The correct word is _"wake"_ and not even “wake-keep.” Both “wake-keeping” and “wake-keep” are ungrammatical.

      This bad grammatical expression gained currency in Nigeria and neighbouring West African countries with the influx of made-in-China stylus pen touchscreen not-so-smart phones in the mid 2000s. It was a novelty then; many in Nigeria had not seen it – or even thought such advanced technology was possible – before. So, they looked for a name to call it and “screentouch” came to mind, after all you just touch the screen and it starts working. In case you’ve still not figured it out yet, the correct thing to say is _"touchscreen"_ and not screentouch.


      There is no word like this. Nigerians use it when driving and want to alert other road users that the driver wants to turn to either left or right. The correct term is _"indicator"_ as a sign to indicate that the driver is either turning right or left.


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      Ambassadors of Poverty by P.O.C Umeh

      The poem is a satirical poem in which the poet expresses disgust at various economic saboteurs in the country.  He recounts in an objective way various persons who are involved in economic sabotage.
        He aptly condemns dubious politicians who promises electorate heaven on earth but as soon as they have taken the oath of office and assumed power, they immediately forget the masses who voted for them.

      • In the first stanza of the  poem,  the poet posit that the authorized representative of poverty are those who are in charge of the economy in this country. He calls them " patriot " in reverse order and "merchant of loot" these groups of people loot the country Treasury and takes their booty to Western and Eastern countries for safe keeping.

      • In the sixth stanza, the poet condemn the politicians whom he referred to as " the round trippers/ the elusive importers. "


      Repetition, Anthesis, Irony, Alliteration, Assonance and Metaphor

      1. Anthesis
      (I) the dubious sit-tight patriot

      2.  Irony
      (I) The saviour of the people

      3.  Metaphor
      (I) Ambassadors of poverty represents everybody who don't have interest of his/her country at heart.

      The poem has nine (9) stanzas

      * Corruption
      * Negative effect of violence
      * Betrayal of trust
      * The need to encourage agriculture in our country.

      Read more

      Monday, August 28, 2017

      The use of Relative Pronoun

      Basically there are five (5) relative pronoun but before we look into the that lets define the word Pronoun. What are pronoun?
      These are word used instead of a noun or name, to avoid the repetition of it. The personal pronouns in English are I, thou or you, he, she, it, we, ye, and they. Haven't defined the word Pronoun. Now let's look at the five (5) relative pronoun which are
      1. Who
      2. Which
      3. Whose
      4. Whom
      5. That
          Functionally we use them in what we call relativisation. We mean the process in grammar by which independent ( main clause ) are made subordinate ( dependent clause ) by introduction of a relative pronoun example
      Mr Ola ( subject sentence ) is the landlord ( subject content ).

      I ( subject ) like the landlord's daughter (direct object)

      Mr Ola whose daughter I like ( in relative clause ) is the landlord

      How do we use WHO?
      Huge question right? Hahaha but don't worry we are here to explain.
      Who is a relative pronoun that is used as the subject of a relative clause.
      I ( subject ) saw the woman ( object ) who stole the baby (relative clause)

      The student who fought the principle (relative clause) is not in class today.
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      Friday, August 25, 2017

      Be Contented - kids stories

      There live a little boy named Kemy, Kemy lived with his mother and father in a little Village. But kemy was a stubborn kid who was very lazy to help his mother nor father whenever they needed his assistance, He was also selective in the choice of male that was being prepared at home.
         Sometimes, his mother would cook rice but kemy will refuse to eat the food clamoring for something else.
      So on one faithful day, it was now time for super and as usual, kemy would select the type of meal that he wants to eat before his mother will cook for her husband and herself. She prepared bread and tea for kemy as requested,while she made soup with different varites of assorted fish,meat and chicken etc.
      And the aroma was so inviting that their neighbors were ashame to come beg inother to have a taste of such aromatic food being prepared by kemy's mom.
           So, kemy was at the dinning table as usual as one big happy family.
      Kemy eat his bread and tea quietly while his parents eat theirs.
      But the aroma from the food made him looks at his parents plate but he was too shy to have asked out of that delicious meal.
      He kept on stirring at his parents plates hoping that his mom would see him and give him some out of theirs
      But kemys parents has knew what as being written on his mind but they wanted to teacher him a lesson on how to appreciate what his given to him.
      Kemy cried out in a loud voice begging from their plate.
      but he only wasted his tears crying for something he wanted badly.

      After that day,anything that was prepared at home,was what kemy started to eat..........And the family lived a one big happy family.
      Kemy made his parents proud scoring more highier grades and began to help out at home whenever they needed his assistance.


      Credits to Judy the Story teller
      Feel free to drop your story at our facebook page or whatsapp group and if it tallies with our publication guidelines then we'd post it here, guess what? There's an award for every story teller at the end of the month.
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      Tuesday, August 22, 2017

      Nationalism and Major Civic problems

      Nationalism is the love and emotional attachment that citizens have towards their country that make them fight for their political independence from foreign rule or domination. It is a state of not being religiously, ethnically or politically bias but representing the country not minding the religion, state or race that one comes from. Nationalism started in some countries of the world like Britain, Germany, France and Portugal were in control of the administration of some less advanced countries most especially in Africa. The need for self government and independence from the imperialist brought about nationalism in countries that experienced colonialism. Nigeria, for example was dominated and controlled by Britain before they granted Nigeria self government after much pressure and negotiations from the nationalist. Herbert Macaulay popularly referred to as father of Nigeria nationalism, Nnamdi Azikiwe called the Zik of Africa, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello, Tafawa Balewa, among others were those that pursues the independent of Nigeria. Other popular nationalist in Africa include Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Nelson Mandela if South Africa, Julius Nyerere of Tanzanian, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia etc.

      Characteristics of Nationalists

      (I) They were selfless men and women, placing three nation above their desires.

      (ii) They were very consistent, believing in any course they fought for.

      (III) They were objective, neutral and non-selective.

      (IV) They always stood for the unity of the country leaving no room for selfish matters.

      (v) They were heroes and heroines.

      Factors that Promoted Nationalist 
      Some of the factors that promoted the spirit of nationalism in the people are as follows :

      1. Discrimination. 
      2. Advent of newspapers. 
      3. Influence of powerful individuals
      4. Civilization. 
      5. Political parties. 
      6. The development Around the world. 

      Major Local and World Civic Problems

      The major local and world civic problems include the following :

      1. The perpetuation of some world leaders in power which always lead to violent overthrow of government thereby leading to civic wars and violent demonstrations. 
      2. The despotic rule of some leaders depriving their citizens of their basic fundamental human right. 
      3. Terrorism : This is the use of violence to achieve political arms leading to the death of innocent people and destruction of properties. 
      4. Resources Control : The recurrent rift between the government and the people of the Niger/Delta region is a civic problem. 
      5. Natural disasters like floods, land slides, earthquakes and tsunamis etc are constantly faced by countries around the world. 
      6. Social problem like bilateral relationships between two nor more countries etc. 
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      Monday, August 21, 2017

      The Brain

      The brain is housed in and protected by the  cranium. It is divided into three (3) parts which are; forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Now let's explain them one after another

      Forebrain : This is made up of the olfactory lobes and the cerebral hemispheres. Cerebrum is the largest and most dominant part of the brain. It is structurally divided into two cerebral hemisphere by a median fissure.

      The Midbrain : This consists mainly of the optic lobes which control sight.

      The Hindbrain : This consists of the cerebellum or the little brain and the medulla oblongata which connects the cerebellum to the spinal cord.

      Cerebral hemisphere seat of consciousness, intelligence memory learning and voluntary actions.

      Cerebellum : for balance and body posture. Receives impulses and co-ordinates actions of muscles.

      Olfactory lobes : Receives sensory impulse for smelling.

      Optic lobes : Receives impulses from the eyes.

      Medulla oblongata : Controls respiration, heart beat digestive movement and blood supply.

      Thalamus : Serves as a relay centre between the cerebral cortex and the rest part of the brain. Regulate the state of wakefulness and sleep.

      Hypothalamus : It regulate the temperature of the body. It also regulate the water, salt and sugar balance of the blood.

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      Circulation Of blood

      Mammals have a closed blood circulatory system. The heart is four chambered and acts as a double pump for a double circulatory system with the pulmonary circulation completely separated from the systematic circulation.
        Blood that has circulated round the body in arteries, arterioles and capillaries return to the right auricle of the heart by the vein.
        Blood from the lower parts of the body returns to the right auricle by the inferior vena cava.
      The tricuspid valve relaxes and the blood flows into the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts to force the blood into pulmonary artery which branches into two to take blood into the right and left lungs.
        In the lung the deoxygenated blood drops its carbon (iv) oxide content and picks oxygen in the alveoli. This is called gaseous exchange. 
           Oxygenated blood returns by the pulmonary veins to the left autricle of the heart.

              Systemic Circulation
           The distribution of the oxygenated blood throughout the body is called SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. As oxygenated blood enters the left auricle the bicuspid valves relax and the blood flows into the left ventricle.
      The left ventricle contracts to force the blood into the main artery, the aorta which circulates oxygenated blood through arteries, arterioles and capillaries to all parts of the body. As the blood distributes essential materials such as oxygen, glucose, water, hormones it also pick up waste products such as urea, uric acid, water plus dissolved mineral salts.
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      Sunday, August 13, 2017

      How Political Parties Compete For Power

      Before we know how political parties compete for power let us firstly take a glimpse at the definition of the word POLITICAL PARTY. 
      The meaning of the word " political party " is ; Political parties are groups of people who have the same ideology, coming together for the purpose of seeking the mandate of the people to take control of the government machinery.
      They serve as platform for political leaders to emerge. In any political system, political parties scramble to outsmart one another to take over the machinery of government. The ways through which they compete for power are as follows :

      i. Manifesto : This is a formal statement expressing the aims and ideology of the political parties. Political parties design programes and ideology that forms their basis of operation.  The level at which these ideologies affect the lives and welfare of citizens will determine the level of support they get from them. The political parties then make sure that their ideologies are welfaristic and realistic to gain an upper hand in elections.

      ii. Membership : Political parties all struggle to entice more people to their sides. This will increase the size of their membership, as a party with a large membership stands a greater chance of winning an election.  These facts propel them to jostle for bloated membership.

      III. Campaigns : This is a series of planned activities that is intended or designed to achieve a peculiar political aim or result.  The strategy and method used to campaign goes along way in capturing the attention and interest of the citizens. Many people can be convinced by the mode of campaign of apolitical party.  In Nigerian Democratic system, the politicians in various parties use campaigns to compete with opposition parties.  A lot of money is usually involved in campaign in other to win the hearts of the citizens

      Rallies : This refers to a large public meeting especially on that is held outdoors to support political ideas, etc. Rallies are used to arouse individual interest in political party.  Rallies are powerful instruments used to win the heart of the citizens towards a political party.

      Quality of candidates : The quality of the candidates presented by political parties also matters in an election since people can only for a candidate that has the interest of the people at heart and has integrity and trust. Political parties present party candidates of proven integrity so as to stand a better chance in elections.

      Logo : A logo is a symbol or design adopted by an organization to identify its products.  Political parties use logos to represent their parties, these logos attract the interest and attention of the citizens to a particular parties.  It helps in competing for power among political parties.  Examples of political party logos in Nigeria include the following : People Democratic Party ( PDP ) - Umbrella, Action Congress of Nigeria ( ACN ) - broom e.t.c take a look at the picture above you will different political logos in there.

      Geographical spread : Political parties also jostle for government machinery among themselves by spreading their membership to all the strata of the society. A political party that is ethnic in nature may not get any vote outside it's ethnic background, hence the need to have national outlook and spread to all parts of the country to stand a better chance of winning elections.

      Slogan : This is a word or phrase used to express the aim of a political party. The slogan of a party is always positive I  nature which is intended to win the hearts of the citizen towards the party. The slogan of people's Democratic Party ( PDP ) for example is " Power ". While that of APC is "Change".

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      Friday, July 28, 2017

      God's Covenant With Abraham

      For this lesson you have to read Genesis 12:1-9; 17:1-21; 21:1-8; 25:19-26
      (I) A covenant is an agreement. It also means a contract.

      The Call Of Abraham
         Abraham was born in Ur of Chaldea, a city in which idols were worshipped.  Abraham was not an idol worshipper.  He was a believer in the existence of only one God. God called Abraham and told him to leave his home town which was steeped in idolatry,  and to go to a land called Canaan in order that he might live apart and worship Him there.

      God's Promise To Abraham
      God made a promise to Abraham that ;
      • His descendants would be as numberless as the stands of the sea.
      • His descendants would be a great nation.
      • His descendants would inherit the land of Canaan.
      • That through them all nations would be blessed.

      Abraham obeyed God's command and left his home reaching Canaan after some years of traveling.  In the course of time God appears to him and changed his name to Abraham ( from Abram), meaning " the father of multitudes" and his wife name from Sarai to Sarah. When Abraham got to Shechem after the call, God appeared to him and said,  " Unto your seed will I give the land".
         God made a convenient with Abraham whereby Abraham and his descendants must be CIRCUMCISED as a sign that they were God's chosen people.  This was to distinguish the seed of Abraham from the Gentiles. Abraham was also told that his descendants should possess the land of Canaan after they had spent 40 years in a foreign land.

        Abraham's wife, Sarah was the mother of only one son,  Isaac. He was born when Abraham was 100 years and Sarah was 90 years old.  The birth of Isaac was a direct fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham.

      Isaac had two sons Esau and Jacob. Jacob who was the younger of the two sons bought birth-right from Esau and deceive his father to get his blessing.  He later suffered on account of his deception but it could be seen that God chose him instead of Esau to continue His promise to Abraham. The descendants of Jacob and not those of Esau, eventually inherited the 'Land of Promise '.

      Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were patriarch or ancestors of the Hebrew nation, Jacob was renamed "ISRAEL" by the angel who wrestled with him at Peniel. His descendants became known as the ISRAELITE

      (I) Covenant was the agreement between God and Abraham.
      (ii) God promised Israelites many blessings subject to their obedience to God.
      (III) Abraham left his home in obedience to God's instructions.
      (it) Circumcision of all Abraham's descendants was a special sign of God's covenant with Abraham.

      Significance Of the Lesson
      • God's promise will always be fulfilled whether we like it or not

      • We are blessed as we obey God's commandments.

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