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Friday, November 15, 2019

The Origin and History of Literature

 The origin or history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempts GI provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. Not all writings constitute literature, some recorded materials, such as compilations of data (examples a check register) are not considered literature.

Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous. The very first writing from ancient summer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature - the same is true of some early Egyptian hieroglyphics or the thousands of logs from ancient Chinese regimes. Scholars have often disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like "literature" than anything else; the definition is largely subjective.

Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an even pace across the world. The problem of creating a uniform global history of literature are compounded by the fact that many texts have been lost over the millennia, either deliberately, by accident, or by the total disappearance of the originating culture. Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, and the innumerable key texts which are believed to have been lost forever to the flames. The deliberate suppression of texts (and often their authors) by organizations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject.

Certain primary texts, however, may be isolated which have a qualifying role as literature's first stirrings. Very early examples include Epic of Gilgamesh, in its Sumerian version predating 2000 BC, and the Egyptian Book of the Dead written down in the Papyrus of Ani in approximately 1250 BC but probably dates from about the 18th century BC. Ancient Egyptian literature was not included in early studies of the history of literature because the writings of Ancient Egypt were not translated into European languages until the 19th century when the Rosetta stone was deciphered.

Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are difficult or impossible to date. The core of the Rig-Veda may date to the mid 2nd millennium BC. The Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest.

Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity. They also stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Bronze Age.
Indian œruti texts post-dating the Rig-Veda (such as the Yajurveda, the Atharvaveda and the Brahmanas), as well as the Hebrew Tanakh and the mystical collection of poems attributed to Lao Tze, the Tao te Ching, date to the Iron Age, but their dating is difficult and controversial. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, like predating the Maurya period.

Other oral traditions were fixed in writing much later, such as the Elder Edda, written down in the 12th or 13th century.
There are various candidates for the first novel ever written.

1.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE 
Now you may or likely going to ask what are the importance of literature?
Literature, besides being an art form used for expression, also preserves cultural ideals, customs and morals. The written word gives us a deeper context into the lives and livelihood of people distinct from ourselves - this can be true of historical literature but is equally true of modern literature, as well. We can learn as much from William Shakespeare's time through his plays as we can from authors from a different mindset or place.

Besides this detailed and nuanced window into author person's or people's world, literature also challenges the reader to profoundly ponder the art form itself. Though metaphor, allusions, themes, foreshadowing and other literary devices, the reader has the opportunity to analyze a work beyond the written words.

Literature is a way for man to express his thoughts, beliefs and ideas. It is an excellent way to educate the masses and is also a great way to escape from ordinary life.

Literature is important in a society so that people have an outlet to reduce stress, learn about topics such as history, and be able to use their imagination to see a story from the narrator's perspective. There are many references in everyday life to works of literature so knowledge of them helps to better understand the world around us. It also helps one better understand the past from a perspective one could never have on their own.

1.3 What Is English Literature 
This focuses in the English language from anywhere, no just the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, the whole of Ireland, Wales, as well as literature in English from former British colonies, including the United States of America. But until the early 19th century, it just deals with literature from Britain and Ireland written in English; then America starts to produce major writers. In the 20th century America and Ireland produced many of the most significant works of literature in English, and after World War II writers form the former British Empire also began to produce major works of literature.

The English language and Literature course is one of the broadest in the country, giving you the chance to study writing in English from its origins in Anglo-Saxon England to the literature of the 20th and early 21st centuries as well as the Literature of the British Isles, you can study works written in English from many other parts of the world. The course also allows you a considerable degree of choice about the topics you would like to concentrate on. Studying literature at Oxford involves the development of sophisticated reading skills and of an ability to place literary texts in their wider intellectual and historical contexts. It also requires you to consider the critical process by which you analyze and judge, to learn about literary form and technique, and to study the development of the English language.

Types Of Literature Or Genres Of Literature
The five main types of literature include poetry, prose, drama, media and non-fiction. Each of these genres is split up between fiction and non-fiction. Poetry is one of the oldest forms of literature. Prose is defined as nay form of text that is not poetry. Drama can be called plays, but this genre is not always in writing. Non-fiction is a border category in the main genres of literature and you will find this type of literature in textbooks and essays. Media is a type of literature that is actually new to the main list of literature genres and includes newspapers, magazines, and other news delivery mediums.

Other Types of Literature
Literature can be categorized as oral or written and the common types of literature are ballads, myth, jokes, biographies, fantasy, folktales and science fiction.

Literature is more recent than oral literature, since speech was developed before writing. The two types of literature are oral and written. Oral literature is made up of ballads, myths, folktales and fables; while written literature had stage show, tale, poetry and nonfictional literature.

Forms of Literature 
There are numerous kinds of literature. These include poetry, short stories, novels, letters, and more. These have been around since the earliest forms of writing.
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A Raisin In The Sun by Lorraine Hansberry

A Raisin the sun is a play by Lorraine Hansberry that debuted on broadway in 1959. The title comes from the poem "Harlem" (also known as "A Dream Deferred") by Langston Hughes. The story is based upon a black family's experiences in the Washington Park Subdivision of Chicago's Woodlawns neighborhood.

Walter and Ruth Younger and their son Travis, along with Walter's mother Lena (Mama) and sister Beneatha, live in poverty in a dilapidated two-bedroom apartment on Chicago's South side. Walter is barely making a living as a limousine driver. Though Ruth is content with their lot, Walter is not and desperately wishes to become wealthy, to which end he plans to invest in a liquor store in partnership with Willy, a street-smart acquaintance of Walter's whom we never meet. At the beginning of the play, Mama is waiting for an Insurance check for ten thousand dollars. Walter has a sense of entitlement to the money, but Mama has religious objections yo alcohol and Beneatha has to remind him it is Mama's call how to spend it. Eventually Mama put some of the money down a new house, choosing an all-white neighborhood over a black one for the practical reason that it happens to be much cheaper. Later she relent L's and gives the rest money to Walter to invest with the provision that he reserves $3,000 for Beneatha's education. Walter passes the money on to Willy's naive sidekick Bobo, who gives it to Willy, who absconds with it depriving Walter and Beneatha of their dreams, though not the Youngers of their new home. Meanwhile, Karl Lindner, a white representative of the neighborhood they plan to move to, makes a generous offer to buy them out.

He wishes to avoid neighborhood tension over interracial population, which to the three women's horror Walter prepares to accept as a solution to their financial setback. Lena says that while money was something they try to work for, they should never take it if it was a person's way of telling them they were not fit to walk the same earth as them.

While all these is going on, Walter's character and direction in life are being defined for us by two different men: Beneatha's wealthy and educated boyfriend George Murchison, and Joseph Asagai. Neither man is actively involved in the Youngers financial ups and downs. George represents the "fully assimilated black man" who denies his African heritage with a "smarter than thou" attitude, which Beneatha finds disgusting. While dismissively mocking Walter's lack of money and education. Asagai patiently teaches Beneatha about her about her African heritage; he gives her thoughtfully useful gifts from Africa, while pointing out she is unwittingly assimilating herself into white ways. She straightens her hair, for example, which he characterizes as "mutilation".

When Beneatha becomes distraught at the loss of the money, she is upbraided by Joseph for materialism. She eventually accepts his point of view that things will get better with a lot of effort, along with his proposal of marriage and his invitation to move with him to Nigeria to practice medicine.

Walter is oblivious to the stark contest between George and Joseph: his pursuit of wealth can only be attained by liberating himself from Joseph's culture, to which he attributes his poverty, and rising to George level, wherein he sees salvation.

THEMES IN A RAISIN IN THE SUN 

The play remains a potent touchstone, still speaking to viewers about race, gender roles, family, hope and desperation, capitalism, the American dream, the problem of housing discrimination, how the social, educational, economical and political climate of the 1950s affected African Americans' quest for "The American Dream".

  Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) analyzes Northern racism and it cruel effects in her play A Raising in the Sun, which she claims is "specifically [about] Southside Chicago" (Hansberry. YGB 114).

Many social issues including feminism, gender roles, the Black family, and the pan-African movement, as well as events within Hansberry's own life, are interweaved in this play. However, a central theme of A Raisin in the Sun reveals how racism from the housing industry, government, religious leaders, and average Americans supported the segregated housing environment of Chicago...

(a) Dreams, Hopes, and Plans: BENEATHA (Dropping to her knees) Well- I do - all right? - thank everybody! And forgive me ever for ever wanting to be anything at all! (Pursing him on her knees across the floor) FO...

(b) Race: ASAGAI... You came up to me and you said... "Mr. Asagai - I want very much to talk with you. About Africa. You see, Mr. Asagai, I am looking for my identity!" (He laughs) (1.2.98)

(c) Pride: Still, we can see that at some time, a time probably no longer remembered by the family (except perhaps for MAMA), the furnishings of this room were actually selected with care and love and even ho...

(d) Family: RUTH (She finally laughs aloud at him and holds out her arms him and we see that it is a way between them, very old and practiced. He crosses to her and allows her to embrace her warmly but keep...

(e) Poverty: RUTH they said Saturday and this is just Friday and I hopes to God you ain't going to get up here first thing this morning and start talking to me 'bout no money — 'cause I...

(f) Suffering: Weariness has, in fact, won in this room. Everything has been polished, washed, sat on, used, scrubbed too often. All pretenses but living itself have long since vanished from the very atmosphere o...

(g) Dissatisfaction: We can see that she was a pretty girl, even exceptionally so, but now it is apparent that life has been little that she expected, and disappointment has already begun to hang in her face. (1.1.stag...

(h) The Home: MAMA (Looking at him as she would WALTER) I bet you don't half look after yourself, being away from your mama either. I spec you better come 'round here from time to time to get yourself some d...

(I) Gender: WALTER... See there, that just goes to show you what women understand about the world. Baby, don't nothing happen for you in this world 'less you pay somebody off! (1.1.81)

(j) Choices: RUTH (Beaten) Yes I would too, Walter. (Pause) I gave her a five-dollar down payment. (1.2.237)

(k) Sacrifice: WALTER I don't want nothing but for you to stop acting holy 'round here. Me and Ruth done made some sacrifices for you – why can't you do something for the family? (1.1.118)


CHARACTERS IN A RAISIN IN THE SUN BY LORRAINE HENSBERRY

Walter: As Mama's only son, Ruth's defiant husband, Travis's caring father, and Beneatha's belligerent brother, Walter serves as both protagonist and antagonist of the play. The plot revolves around him and the actions that he takes, and his character evolves the most during the course of the play. Most of his actions and mistakes hurt the family greatly, but his belated rise to man hood makes a sort of hero in the last scene. Throughout the play, Walter provides an everyman perspective of the mod-twentieth-century African-American male. He is the typical man of the family who struggles to support it and who tries to discover new, better schemes to secure it economic prosperity. Difficulties and barriers that obstruct his and his family's progress to attain that prosperity constantly frustrate Walter. He believes that money will solve all of their problems, but he is rarely successful with money.

Walter often fights and argue with Ruth, Mama, and Beneatha. Far from being a good listener, he does not seems to understand that he must pay attention to his family members concerns in order to help them. Eventually, he realize that he cannot raise the family up from the poverty alone, and he seeks strength in uniting with his family. Once he begins to listen to Mama and Ruth express their dreams of owning a house, he realizes that buying the house is more important for the family's welfare than getting rich quickly. Walter finally becomes a man when he stands up to Mr. Lindner and refuses the money that Mr. Lindner offers the family not to move in to its dream house in a white neighborhood.

Mama: Mama is Walter and Beneatha's sensitive mother and the head of the younger household. She demands that members of her family respect themselves and take pride in their dreams. Mama require that the apartment in which they live always be neat and polished. She stands up for her belief and provides perspective from an older generation. She believes in striving to succeed while maintaining her moral boundaries; she rejects Beneatha progressive and seemingly un-christian sentiment about God, and Ruth's consideration of an abortion disappoint her. Similarly, when walter comes to her with his idea to invest in the liquor store venture, she condemn the idea and explains that she'll not participate in such un-christian business. Money is only a means to an end for Mama; dreams are more important to her than material wealth, and her dream is to own a house with a garden and yard which Travis can play.

Asagai: One of Beneatha fellow students and one of her suitors, Asagai is from Nigeria, and throughout the ply he provides an international perspective. Proud of his African heritage, he hopes to return to Nigeria to bring about positive change and modern advancement. He tries to teach Beneatha about her heritage as well. He stands in obvious contrast to Beneatha other suitor, George Murchison, who is an arrogant African-American who has succeeded in life by assimilating to the white world.
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Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Cultures of the Rainforest Region in Nigeria

Cultures of the rain forest region  may be categorized into four main groups. There is first the Yoruba group to the west of the region which spills over into neighboring Benin Republic with considerable enclaves in Togo. East and west of the Niger, the Igbo sub cultures occupy a vast area; and between the Igbo and the Yoruba are sandwiched the Edoid group of cultures which includes, Bini, Esan, Etsako, Igarra, Owan, And others. East of Igboland to the Cameroonian border is the home of the Yako, Ekoi, Ibibio, Anang, Bokyi, Ejagham, Bekwara etc.
      Patterns of social and political organizations vary enormously among these cultures but we can retain two broad tendencies. There is first, the village democracies typical of Igboland and other communities of the east and the northern communities of the Edoid complex. There is second, the monarchical state characteristic among the Yoruba and Bini. Although the Igbo political culture has tended to emphasize the Republican ethos some elaborate kingdoms had been evolved in placed like Nri, Onitsha, And several Igbo communities west of the Niger. We will appreciate these patterns better if we consider the examples of the Igbo and Yoruba.
The basic unit of political organization in Igboland is the village. The village itself is composed of lineages which are regarded as something similar to components states. Similarly, a number if villages claim a common primordial ancestor constitutes a village, group or town. The administration of the lineage is headed by the Okpara (the oldest male member). His task includes the making of sacrifices to the ancestors on behalf of all members for prosperity, health and long life; he controls the Of it symbolizes justice and authority. But in cases of serious dispute and matters requiring crucial and careful decisions, a general meeting of the adult members of the lineage is called. There is no deliberate rule against the participation of any member that can make meaningful contributions irrespective of age and sex.
       At the level of the village public administration is the control of the village assembly which comprises every able bodied male adult. At the core of this is the inner Council (ama ala) comprising of lineage, heads, title holders and any other elders on the basis of their personal qualities. While political participation is direct at the lineage and village levels, the town or village group level operates on the principle of representative democracy. Here the administrative institution is composed of ad hoc representations of villages. These are usually titled men, lineage heads and respected elders.

At some point in the development of Igbo political cultures some of the village groups evolved into monarchies. But apart from the Nri hegemony which dates back to considerable antiquity, monarchies elsewhere in Igbo land seem to be part of intrusive traints from neighboring cultures. Accordingly, these have been categorized into four trends (Oguagha 1988). The first type has been described by some writers as the "presidential monarchy" (Uchendu, 1965), examples of which include Oilitsha, Aboh and Agbor. In these cases, the monarch (usually called Obi or Eze) together with a body of titled officers (ndichie) constitute something of an executive council. In Onitsha for example, there are three grades of Ndichie, viz: Ndichie Ume, Ndichie Okwa, and Ndichie Okwareze. The members of these Ndichie are appointed from among the Ozo title holders. The Ndichie ume comprises of six members bearing the title of Iyase, Ajie, Odu, Onya, Ogene, and Owelle. You can infer something of the weight of these titles from calibre of some of their bearers in contemporary Nigeria. They include Chief Ukpabi Asika one time Administrator of East Central State during and for a while after the Civil War (Ajie of Onitsha), Chief Arthur Mbanefo (Odu of Onitsha) who chaired the committee for the creation of states in 1996 and of course the Rt. Hon. Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe of blessed memory (the Owelle of Onitsha). These six Chiefs are the heads of the six administrative units of Onitsha town. The main job of the Ndichie Okwa is to assist the Ndichie Ume, while the Ndichie Okwareze assist the Obi.

Among the Afikpo and Abakiliki, political power is vested with the senior age set called Ndi Uke. Together with the lineage heads they form the administrative council in Lieu of the ama ala. Elsewhere in Ohuhu, Abam, Ngwa and Arochukwu, the institution of the secret societies such as Ekpe, Okonko and Akang constitute the locus of political power and membership is open to all freeborn citizens upon payment of appropriate fees.
Unlike the Igbo experience, the basic political unit in the Yoruba culture area is the town. A town is composed of lineages prizes in order of seniority determined by the order of settlement. Each lineage has a hereditary title assumed by its leader. The leader of the founder lineage assumes the headship of the town. In most cases, the political Head of the town is called a baale or Oba (in the case of a crowned king). The bale or oba conducts the administration of the town in consultation with the various lineage Chiefs some of whom were heads of the components wards of the town. The nomenclature for these bodies of Chiefs vary from place to place in Yorubalnd. In Oyo for example, they are known as the Oyomesi, in Ekiti and Ondo they are called the Iwarefa; while they assume the appellation of Ilamuren in Ijebu. This arrangement also constitutes the mechanism of checks and balance.

          For the purpose of local administration, the town is divided into wards under the leadership of ward Chiefs (Ijoye, Adugbo or olorin itun). Wards were turn composed of still smaller administrative units, the compounds (agbo ile) which are headed by the eldest man (baale). The baale is usually a member of the ward Council and members of his compound channel their political input through him to the ward council. Similarly the Ijoye being members of the town council carry the interest and desires of their members to the town council.
Here there is no distinction between judicial and legislative powers. There is rather a hierarchy of powers. Thus we have three judicial levels represented by the Court of Oba, the Ijoye and the baale. Appeals lie from the court of the baale to that of the Ijoye and from the court of the latter to that of the oba or town baale. The oba's court is the court of last appeal with the little exception that in Egba or Ijebu appeal can still lie from the court of the oba to the Ogboni or Osugbo court especially in cases that requires capital punishment.
   Even in parts of Yoruba where the socio-political events of especially the nineteenth century gave rise to more elaborate monarchies covering larger units, the basic structure of the town based polity os maintained. The constitutional arrangements however vary widely, some writers identify as many as over fifty political systems (Lloyd, 1978) but Fadipe (1970) grouped them into four broad categories. These range from the highly centralized empire of Oyo with capital at Oyo Ile to provincial, loose federal and quasi-centralised system as in for example Ife, Ekiti, Awori and Egba (Oguntomisin 1988).

  Cultures of the forest region are also remarkable for their sophisticated artistic tradition and skills. Obvious examples include the science of metallurgy especially iron smelting and black smithing in such communities as Ife, Nkwere, Awka, Abiriba and Oyo. The bronze tradition of Igbo Ukwu has been dated back to the ninth century A.D and that of Benin enjoys equally respectable antiquity. In the case of Benin, the crafts and arts were devoted to the patronage of the Oba and were under the control of guilds. Terra cotta figurines of very high artistic qualities have been found in several parts of the zone including Igbo, Ibibio, Edo and Yoruba land. A common aesthetic of Yoruba and Edo arts is their naturalistic content - that is to say they tend to represent or depict real natural objects, events or situations. In Ibibio and neighboring cultures, we find the great mask most of which are object of deep religious meaning and symbolism. Everywhere here, but especially in parts of Yoruba and Esan, the textile industry assumes a very high level of excellence. It is on record that Esan textile wares attained International reputation in Manchester very early in this century. The people of this cultural region are as religious as elsewhere in the country. There is a general belief in the existence of a Supreme God variously called Olodumare or Olorun among the yoruba; Osalobua among the Benin, Osenobua among the Esan; Oghena among the Etsako; Chuckwu or sometimes Obasi among the Igbo; Abasi among the Ibibio, etc. This Supreme God is believed to have created the whole world, has unlimited powers; is both benevolent and punitive but hardly gets involved directly in the affairs of men. His abode is somewhere in space in the direction of the sky.
  It is rather the deities (orisa im Yoruba, Alusi in Igbo and ebo in Edo); the Ancestors, the spirit of the land or communal earth (ana or ala) have to attend to on routine basis for they are the forces that get immediately involved in their lives. In the Ife area as many as 201 deities are said to exist and only 25 days in the calendar year are free from official religious activities devoted to some deity or orisa. Some of the well known Orisa among the Yoruba include Sango, Ogun, Sopono, Olokun, Obatala, Obalefun, Orumila, Orisanla, Yemoo, Oluorogbo, etc. Deities among the Igbo seem to be much fewer in number, but they are powerful deities nevertheless. Some of them include Amdioha or Amadiora, Idemili, Igwe, Ana or Ala, etc. The Igbo like other cultural groups also believes that their ancestors (Mmuo) have great influence on their affairs and have to be propitated. The witch belief is not common in many parts of Igboland.

         The central theme of these religions is the search for good health, long life, blessing in terms of children and wealth and general protection against misfortune and evil influences; in exchange for constant worship, purity of heart generally in dealing with members of the community, especially ones lineage. Failure to worship or make sacrifices to these supernatural forces may make them to withdraw their protection and blessing.
Many of these cultures came under external influences fairly early in their histories. Edoland came in contact with the Portuguese as far back as the fifteenth century. It led to the development of bilateral relationship with Portugal. By 1515, guns of European make were already available to be used in the war with Igala Kingdom that year. Works of art were exchanged. Oba Esigie got some of his Chiefs and son converted to Christianity and subsequently built the Holy Arousa Church at Akpakpava in Benin City. Later, his son, Orhogbua was to go to Lisbon where he acquired excellent knowledge of the Portuguese language. We do know that some of the contemporary royal and chieftaincy costumes and regalia are slight modifications of Papal and European models.
  Yoruba land on the other hand, came under Arab influence as far back as the seventeenth century by the way of Islam. By the 1840s, Christianity was introduced from the Egba Axis. The convergence of these two religions also brought with it a corresponding convergence of both European and Arab cultural traits. It is however, remarkable that in spite of these influences, Yoruba culture remains one of the most stable in Africa. Change and development have no doubt taken place here but the basic institutions, values and behavior patterns have endured. It is here that we see 'dududun' and 'beta' music evolving ultimately into 'juju' then 'miliki', 'syncro system' etc. Also here, indigenous drama has been transformed into film industry by such men as Hubert Ogunde of blessed memory, Ade Love etc. It is also in Yoruba we have our first modern novels composed in Yoruba language, and the same language has been used to write books of science and technology.
External contact was much delayed among the Igbo and the Ibibio for both historical and geographical reasons. Islam did not find its way here and it was not until the turn of the century before direct contact with Europeans became possible. Since then, important transformations have taken place in these cultures not all of which have brought positive change and development. You can see the details of these processes in their artistic description in the works of Chinua Achebe especially Things Fall Apart, Arrow of God and No longer at Ease.
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Rochas Okorocha Foundation 2019 Scholarship

The Okorocha Foundation incorporated is offering undergraduate university scholarship to five candidates from each state of the Federation (Nigeria).

The scholarship offer is tenable exclusively at EASTERN PALM UNIVERSITY, Ogboko, Imo state in any of the programs listed below. The scholarship is for the duration of the program and covers tuition and related charges.

AVAILABLE ACADEMIC PROGRAMS

Faculty of Science
• BSc Biology
• BSc Biochemistry
• BSc Plant science and bio technology (Botany)
• BSc Animal and environmental biology (zoology)
• BSc mathematics
• BSc physics
• BSc chemistry
• BSc computer Science
• BSc statistics
• BSc physics electronics

Faculty of social and management Sciences
• BSc Business Administration
• BSc Banking and finance
• BSc marketing
• BSc entrepreneurial studies
• BSc political Science
• BSc economics
• BSc Sociology
• BSc psychology
• BSc industrial relations and personal management
• BSc business management
• BSc public administration

Faculty of Arts 

• BA English language and Library studies

• BA History and International studies

• BA Philosophy

• BA Religious studies

• BA Linguistics



ELIGIBILITY

1. All prospective applicants desirous of this scholarship must have scored 250 and above in the 2019 Unified Tertiary  Matriculation Examination (UTME).

2. Any applicant already admitted in other institutions, must apply for a change of institution to EASTERN PALM UNIVERSITY.

3. All application must be submitted at least 10 (Ten) days from the date of this post.

HOW TO APPLY FOR THE ROCHAS FOUNDATION 2019 SCHOLARSHIP 

Interested candidates should visit www.jamb.gov.ng

And secondly click on Student to log into Rochas Okorocha Foundation Scholarship

And lastly fill the application form
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Thursday, November 7, 2019

2019/2020 Full List Of All Art Courses

Below is a comprehensive / full list of all art courses in Nigerian Universities for those interested in
studying art courses in any University in Nigeria. We listed some of the accredited schools that
offers these courses.

These art courses in Nigeria are the best you can study in any University in Nigeria currently this
2019 especially for those writing JAMB.

Full List of All Art Courses in Nigerian Universities
Below are the art courses in alphabetical order;

  1. African & Asian Studies
  2. Arabic and Islamic Studies
  3. Arabic Language
  4. Arabic Language and Literature
  5. Arabic Studies
  6. Archaeology
  7. Archeology and Tourism
  8. Arts (Combined Honours)
  9. Arts Education
  10. Chinese Studies
  11. Christian Religious knowledge/Studies/Theology
  12. Classical Studies
  13. Communication and Language Arts
  14. Communication Arts
  15. Communication Studies
  16. Comparative Religious Studies
  17. Counseling and Psychology
  18. Creative And Visual Arts
  19. Creative Arts
  20. Criminology and Security Studies
  21. Drama/Dramatic/Performing Arts
  22. Education Arts
  23. EÑk-Ibibio
  24. English and International Studies
  25. English and Literary Studies
  26. English Language
  27. English Language and Communication Studies
  28. English Language and Literature
  29. English Studies
  30. European and Nigerian Languages
  31. Film Arts
  32. Fine Art / Fine and Applied Arts
  33. Fine Arts And Design
  34. Foreign Languages and Literature
  35. French
  36. French and International Relations
  37. French and International Studies
  38. French with German/Russian
  39. Fulfulde
  40. Geography
  41. Geography and Environmental Studies
  42. German
  43. German Combined with French Russian
  44. Guidance and‘ Counselling
  45. Hausa
  46. History
  47. History / Sociology
  48. History and Archaology
  49. History and Archeology
  50. History and Diplomacy
  51. History and Diplomatic Studies
  52. History and International Relation
  53. History and International Studies
  54. History and Political Science
  55. History and Strategic Studies
  56. Igbo
  57. Igbo/Linguistics
  58. International Studies and Diplomacy
  59. Islamic Studies
  60. Kanuri
  61. Kiswahili
  62. Languages
  63. Languages and Linguistics
  64. Languages and Literature
  65. Languages Arts
  66. Languages Arts and Yoruba
  67. Library and Information Science
  68. Linguistics
  69. Linguistics / Edo
  70. Linguistics / Urhobo
  71. Linguistics / Yoruba
  72. Linguistics and African Languages
  73. Linguistics, Igbo and other African Languages
  74. Literature in English
  75. Mass Communication
  76. Media Studies and Mass Communication
  77. Modern and European Language
  78. Modern Language and Translation
  79. Music
  80. Nigerian Languages
  81. Peace Studies and ConÒict Resolution
  82. Performing Arts
  83. Performing Arts and Culture
  84. Philosoph and Religious Studies
  85. Philosophy
  86. Philosophy & Religious Studies
  87. Political Science
  88. Political Science and ConÒict Resolution
  89. Portugues/English
  90. Portuguese
  91. Psychology
  92. Psychology and Human Development
  93. Religion and Science
  94. Religious and Philosiphy
  95. Religious Studies
  96. Religious Studies / Theology
  97. Russian with French/ German
  98. Russian
  99. Sociology
  100. Sociology and Anthropology
  101. Theatre And Film Studies
  102. Theatre And Media Arts
  103. Theatre And Performing Arts
  104. Theatre Arts
  105. Theatre Arts/Performing Arts/Drama/Dramatic Arts
  106. Theology
  107. Visual and Applied Arts
  108. Yoruba
  109. Yoruba and Communication Arts

Top Nigerian universities that oÖer Art courses presently:
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri (University AÔliated)
Bayero University, Kano
Covenant University, Ota -American University of Nigeria
Delta State University, Abraka
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port-Harcourt
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso
National Open University of Nigeria
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode
University of Benin, Ugbowo
University of Ibadan, Ibadan
University of Ilorin, Ilorin
University of Lagos, Akoka
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
University of Benin, Ugbowo
Uthman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Please note that these full list of art courses in Nigerian Universities has been accredited and
approved by the Ministry of Education and the National University Commission (NUC).
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Sunday, November 3, 2019

Insecurity Rocks Uniben as Social Activities Suspended

The management of the university of Benin (Uniben) has directed that all students and staffs social activities be suspended with immediate effect as this has been necessitated for the need to ensure safety for all lives and properties for all student and staffs and to also ensure sanity on campus.

All student and staff are to strictly adhere, you will recall that few days ago a final year student was killed in the campus with the name Aficionado and also a mass protest was held therefore shutting down the ever busy popular benin Lagos express road - Ugbowo the protest lasted for over 7 hours started from 7am in the morning. The protest started as a result of lack of electricity and water for the students.
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Social Science Subject Combination for 2019

Social Science students who are planning on going for courses such as Economics, Political Science, Psychology etc: They must possess a minimum of 5 ‘O’level credit passes in English, Mathematics, Economics, and any other relevant subjects.

Accountancy
a. Use of English,
b. Mathematics,
c. Economics and
d. Any other Social Science subject.

Business Administration
a. Use of English,
b. Mathematics,
c. Economics and any
d. Other Social Science subject

Public Administration
a. Use of English,
b. Government,
c. Economics and
d. Any other subject

Banking and Finance
a. Use of English,
b. Mathematics,
c. One Social Science subject and
d. Any other subject

Economics
a. Use of English,
b. Mathematics,
c. Economics and
d. Any of Government, History, Geography, Literature in English, French and CRK/IRK.

Demography and Social Statistics
a. Use of English,
b. Mathematics,
c. Economics/ Geography and
d. Any other subject.

Geography
a. Use of English,
b. Geography and
c. Two other Arts or Social Science subjects

Library Science
a. Use of English and
b. Any three Arts or Social Science subjects

Mass Communication
a. Use of English and
b. any three from Arts or Social Science subjects.

Sociology
a. Use of English
b. Three Social Science or Arts subjects.

Political Science
a. Use of English
b. Government or History
c. Plus two other Social Science/Arts subjects

Philosophy
a. Use of English
b. Government
c. And any other two subjects

Psychology
a. Use of English
b. Any three subjects from Arts or Social Science

Religious Studies
a. Use of English Language
b. CRK/IRS
c. And any two other subjects.

Social Works
a. Use of English Language
b. Mathematics
c. Economics/ Geography and
d. Any other subject

Sociology and Anthropology
a. Use of English
b. Three Social Science or Arts Subjects

Industrial Relations
a. Use of English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. One other relevant subject

Human Resources Management
a. Use of English
b. Economics
c. Government
d. Any other relevant subjects.

International Relations
a. Use of English
b. Economics
c. Literature- in English
d. Geography/Government / History.

Business Management
a. Use of English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. One other subject.

Cooperative and Rural Development
a. Use of English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. Any other other subject.

Tourism
a. English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. And any other subject.

Marketing
a. Use of English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. Plus one other relevant Subject.

Insurance
a. English
b. Mathematics
c. Economics
d. And one other subject
Your success my priority.
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Saturday, November 2, 2019

Best Universities In Nigeria Offering Mass Communication

So you want to find out the best universities in Nigeria where you can easily study mass
communication this 2019?
Below are the list of 20 top Nigerian universities that are considered the best to study
mass communication in Nigeria this 2019:

1. Nnamdi Azikwe University (UNIZIK)
This school has one of the best departments of mass communication in the country. As
of writing post, 100 year level students will do a 11 courses in the department, 200 year
level students will also study 11 courses i.e 7 courses for the first semester and 6 for the
second semester. You can check the university’s website for more information on that.

2. Ahmadu Bello University (ABU ZARIA)
ABU ZARIA is one of the best universities in the north to study mass communication and
they have good lectures that can teach the course very well.

3. University of Lagos (UNILAG)
UNILAG is one of the most sought after universities in the country that students love to
attend. This school has one of the best faculties of arts and a well equipped department
of mass communication where courses like news writing, journalism ethics, reporting, etc
are taught.

4 University of Benin (UNIBEN)
This is a federal university in Nigeria that offers mass communication courses like
introduction to mass media, reporting and news writing, history of Nigeria mass media
news editing, critical writing and reviewing.

5. University of JOS (UNIJOS)
This is also a good school with state of the art facilities that makes it easy for students to
study and learn the course.

6. University of Nigeria (UNN)
Historically, UNN was the school that had the first department of mass communication in
Nigeria. Today, the school boasts of professors, lecturers that prioritize quality education
over any thing else. It is located in the Southeastern part of the country.

7. Imo state University
All the institutions listed above are federal schools, state and private universities that
offer quality education in mass communication and they are accredited by the NUC.

8. University of Ilorin
9. Anambra State University (ANSU)
10. Lagos State University (LASU)
11. Kogi State University
11. Covenant University
12. Redeemers University
13. Bowen University
14. Ebonyi State University
15. Delta State University
16. Ahmadu Bello University
17. Obafemi Awolowo University

All universities above are both Federal universities and private universities that gives the best teaching in mass communication in Nigeria and the good thing is that they are accredited universities.

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Friday, November 1, 2019

Uniben Students Halts Movement of CBN Bullion Van (Video)

Students shut down ever-busy Benin-Lagos expressway completely - in longest protest ever
halt movement of CBN bullion van, military vehicle
stop staff members from leaving or going into the school premisses
Chase all members of the management team who came to address them, including the Dean of Student, CSO, Head of Intelligence, Church Chaplain
says; "We're tired of the system
...the students, who have since converted the highway to a football pitch, have been supplied with foods and water to quench their thirst.

The students have equally shut down the main gates leading to the
Ugbowo main campus of the university, depriving staà of the
institution from leaving or going into the school premisses.
Report have it that the students are protesting failure of the
school management to restore electricity and water to those living
in the university’s hostels. 

The protest which commenced at about 6.a.m on Friday has halted
vehicular movements in and out of the ancient city of Benin.
Our correspondent observed that many travelers to and from Lagos were forced to take to other alternatives, including the popular Benin bypass. 

We reliably gathered that the students had earlier written to the school management to Õx the water and electricity 
problems but nothing had been done to resolve the issue.
As at the time of Õling this report, at about 11:30 a.m, the ever-busy
and commercial Ugbowo axis of the city is currently at a standstill.
Eàorts to obtain comment from the university’s public relations
officer (PRO), Mr Michael Osasuyi, proved abortive.
When our news crew visited the institution’s administrative block,
otherwise known as VCO, it was void of the usual day-to-day
activities.

The Vice Chancellor, Prof. F.F.O Orumwense; Registrar, Mrs O. A.
Oshodin and PRO were said to be out of town when our correspondent called at their PRO. 
This is not the first time students of the University of Benin will be protesting against epileptic power supply and lack of water in the school’s hostels. 
Postgraduate students of the school had last semester, protested against the development which led to the suspension of some hostels mayors and mayoress. 
Pictures and Videos below 


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Thursday, October 31, 2019

Introduction To Commerce

Commerce is the study if the art of selling and buying together with all activities and services which aid selling and buying. Commerce deals with the selling and buying of both tangible goods and services.
In primitive society every household produced the goods which it consumed. As society developed, it gradually became clear that no household could produce all the goods which it needed for it survival and comfort. This led to exchange. A farmer who has tubers of yam has to exchange some tubers for meat from the Hunter and some for fish from the fisherman, etc. The first commercial activities took the goods for goods. Under trade by barter money is not used as a medium of exchange.
   In modern times, commerce has developed into a complicated art involving many activities and services which directly or indirectly serve as aids to selling and buying. One word for "selling and buying" is trade. Among the various services which aid trade are a advertising, transportation, warehousing, insurance and banking. All these, therefore, come under commerce and they are referred to as auxiliary or ancillary services to trade. The activities of retailers, wholesalers, importers and exporters are also studied under commerce.
         Perhaps the best way for a novice to know what the subject of commerce deals with is to look at the content page of a standard book on Commerce. He or she will then see for himself the type of topics now treated under commerce. This will give him or her the best picture of what commerce is.

Scope of Commerce
Commerce has to deal with selling and buying as well as all the activities which serves as aids or auxiliaries to selling and buying. As mentioned above one word for selling and buying is trade. Anything that aids trade directly or indirectly is under commerce. The scope of commerce is therefore very wide. It covers all forms of transportation and communication. It also covers insurance, banking, warehousing, advertising, importation and exportation.
        A brief discussion of the above areas will give us a clearer idea of the scope of commerce.
1. Trade: Under trade we have domestic trade and foreign trade. Domestic trade is trade within  country. That is, it is the exchange of goods and services between the residents of the country. Domestic trade is also called internal trade or home trade.
     Foreign trade, on the other hand is trade between the residents of one country and those of another. Foreign trade involves the use of foreign currencies. It also involves importation and exportation.

2. Transportation: There are five main ways of transportation and they are land, water, air and by railways and by pipeline. In land transport people and goods are carried from one place to another through the use of foot, (that is trekking), animals (which can carry people and load), examples donkey, ass and camels (in Northern Nigeria) bicycles, motor cycles, trucks and motor vehicles.
          In water transport, canoes, ships and engine boats are used. Floating can also be used, examples for logs of timber in the creeks and rivers.
        In air transport, helicopters, and aeroplane are used.
          In rail transport, trains are used. In Nigeria we have railway lines running from the north to some parts of the South. Railway lines are very good for carrying bulky goods such as cattle, groundnut, rice, beans and coal.
          Only liquid goods such as oil (petroleum) can be transported through pipeline.

3. Communication: Communication is a very wide topic in commerce. It covers all such areas as communication by letters, by telegram, by telephone, telex, and print media.

4. Insurrance: Insurance houses insure individuals and corporate bodies against various types of risks. Insurance houses play an important role in the import trade.

5. Banking: There are various services which banks render that aid commercial activities.

6. Warehousing: These are houses specially built for the storage of goods.

7. Advertising: Advertising is the means whereby the availability and usefulness of goods and services are brought to the knowledge of prospective consumers.

8. Imports and Exports: Imports and exports are major topics in foreign trade and they are the substance of international commercial activities.

Functions of Commerce
  By function here is meant the work which commerce does in a country and it importance. The importance of commerce to the economic life of a country should be compared to that of food to the continued existence of a nation. Without commerce there will be a complete collapse of the economy of any nation.
Below are the main functions of commerce in a country's economic life:
1. Completion of Production: Production of goods and services is not complete until the goods and services reach the hands of the final consumer. No consumer's wants will be satisfied until goods desired reach his hand. It is through commerce that goods and services are transported and brought to the doorstep of the prospective consumer.
2. Change of Ownership: No prospective consumer is allowed by law to consume goods and services which do not belong to him or her. It is through commerce that ownership of goods and services passes from the producers to the final consumers.
3. Encouragement of Production: Commerce encourages producers to produce large quantities of goods. Without commerce producers will produce only for themselves and their families. No one will produce more than he needs if he knows that he will not be able to sell the extra. By encouraging producers to produce large quantities of whatever goods they are engaged on, commerce increases the total wealth of the nation.
4. Mobility of Factors of Production: Through commerce factors of production (labour, raw materials, capital and land) move efficiently and quickly to where they are most needed. For example, raw materials can be transported over long distances to industries where they are needed through commerce, while the industrialist concentrate their time and energy on the actual production process.
5. Division of Labour: Commerce encourages division of labour. The producer has  only concentrate on production. Raw materials which he or she uses are brought to them through commerce. Also his finished products are sold for him through commerce.
6. Funding: Producers and traders are financed through commercial activities of banks, stock-exchange markets and other financial institutions.
7. Reduction of Business Risks: The commercial activities of insurance houses have reduced greatly business risks.
8. Information: Through the commercial activity of advertising, consumers are informed about the availability of goods and services. Producers are also told about the type of goods consumers need and this enables producers to produce the right type of goods in future.
9. Provision of Employment: Commerce is a major employer of labour.
10.  Storage: The storage facilities provided by commercial houses in form of warehouses ensure that goods are preserved over a long period of time.

HISTORY OF COMMERCE IN NIGERIA
   Before the year 1807,  subsistence economy was practiced in nearly all parts of the territory now known ad Nigeria. Under subsistence economy each household produces the goods and services needed for it consumption. There was virtually no division of labour or specialization. Each man did hunting or setting traps to kill animals and fishes for the family. He also did farming to produce food crops and tubers for his household consumption. He built his own hut and produced crude seats for himself and family. His wife assisted in the farming work while the more dangerous work of hunting and fishing were seen as man's jobs. There was very little exchange of goods for goods (barter).
       However, there were certain ancient centres where commercial activities of s limited nature had been going on. Some of these ancient centres include Kano, Lokoja, Opobo, Calabar, Onitsha, Aboh, Ibadan, and Enugu. In these ancient centres articles of trade like salt, cloth, brass vessels, copper, book, firearm, were exchanged for local products like fish, cattle, hides and skin, gold, kolanuts and slaves. The Arabs and the Berbers, were among the foreigners in the trade.
        As from the fifteenth century the Portuguese joined this trade. They brought spices, peppers, iron works and tobacco which they exchanged for local products mainly slaves.
The Portuguese were more interested in the coastal towns such as Calabar, Aboh, Benin and Opobo. They also encouraged greatly the native Chiefs along the coasts to catch able-bodied young men for them. In return they gave the Chiefs tobacco, copper coins, jewelry and firearms. Cowries were also used at this time as medium of exchange; that is, as money.
This trade continued without any significant growth until 1807. In that year the British government abolished slave trade. As from this year legitimate trade started growing rapidly with full encouragement of the British Government.
The main article of the trade this time were palm kernel, palm oil, timber, hides and skin, groundnut.
Among the first British trading companies established in Nigeria were United African Company (UAC), The Royal Niger Company and the John Holts.
Later on the British Bank for West Africa was established to mint coins and paper money for British West Africa which then were Nigeria, Gold Coast (Now Ghana), Sierra Leone and Gambia. With this development real money guaranteed by a bank replaced rapidly the of cowries and other local mediums of exchange.
  B 1960 when Nigeria obtained political independence the level of commercial activity was fairly high. Several commercial banks have been established. Several insurance companies were already in the country. Also nearly all the railway lines now in the country were already laid. Several tarred roads, from south to north and from east to west, were already in the country.
      Since 1960 the rate of growth of the commercial activities of Nigeria has been unprecedented. Today, Nigeria's import and export trade is on the increase. The traditional economy is fast giving way to a commercial and industrialized one.
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